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From 1971 until 1984 Michel Foucault was the working as the Chair of the History of Systems of Thought at the College de France (Ransom, 1997). Marginalized and underprivileged groups were the focus of plenty of theoretical work done by Foucault, the history of social and medical sciences as well as its implications on those groups was of a distinctive presence in his work (Henderson, 2015). Foucault’s initial work is affected by Marx and existentialism (Henderson, 2015). Existentialism is the theory of the individual’s well and freedom determining their being and evolution (Henderson, 2015). Foucault’s background and a handful of events in his life had a clear implication on his work and point of view (Henderson, 2015). Although authority is often linked with repressiveness and capitalism (Ransom, 1997). Foucault linked authority with knowledge and productiveness (Henderson, 2015). Foucault is interested in the medium of linguistics as a means of comprehending the universe; therefore, Foucault is considered a poststructuralist (Henderson, 2015). Words create the reality of our social lives by illustrating it; this supports the poststructuralism statement (Tonkiss, 1998). In Foucault’s later work, he showed curiosity in Governmentality and its applications, as well as subjunctive citizenship (Foucault, 1980). Foucault saw Governmentality as an art that consists of strategically planned practices and knowing how to govern (Foucault, 1977). Governmentality to Foucault was about the physical force affecting individuals as in protection, Foucault’s way of understanding Governmentality originated in the nineteenth century (Foucault, 1980). Foucault discovered the possibility of over-governing (Henderson, 2015). However, Neo-liberalism endorses less government involvement and promotes self-governance regarding healthy lifestyle choices (Henderson et al., 2009). Liberalism was the primary form of governance in Western countries (Henderson, 2015). Foucault was often intrigued when social phenomena turned out to be made into a problem (Henderson, 2015).

Based on the apparent epidemic of obesity, growing attention has been paid to childhood obesity as a social and health problem (Henderson, 2015). Chronic disease goes hand in hand with obesity, both have a prolonged impact on the economy and public health (Boero, 2007; Mitchell and McTigue, 2007). The impact of obesity and chronic disease on the quality of individual lives has led media and academic literature to call obesity an epidemic (Boero, 2007; Mitchell and McTigue 2007). “Obesity: Preventing and Managing the Global Epidemic.” is a 1998 World Health Organization (WHO) report that describes above healthy Body Mass Index (BMI) as an epidemic (Mitchell and McTigue, 2007). When WHO labeled their report about obesity with “epidemic,” they might have started the Linguistic description of obesity as an epidemic (Mitchell and McTigue, 2007). Childhood obesity is often defined as trouble with parental or self-discipline in media (Henderson et al., 2009; Saguy & Almeling 2008). Disregarding the influence of the social context, mass media draws attention from the multipart social problem to an ethical matter, supporting the individualization of obesity (Saguy & Almeling, 2008). Individualizing obesity means blaming individuals less for their obesity and this, in turn, redirects the guilt to social influences, businesses, and governments (Henderson, 2015). Mass media created a connection between habits and materiality to obesity, and this in turn made childhood obesity a purely medical phenomenon (Boero, 2007). The connection mass media created between adapting to inadequate lifestyle choices or genetic composition permitted medical interventions such as invasive interventions to drastic measures (Boero, 2007). Children can be seen in two different situations when it comes to being obese (Henderson et al., 2009). In one case, children could influence their guardians and compel them to adhere to their poor food choices (Henderson et al., 2009). In the other case, children are naïve and immature beings and need to be preserved from the media and market (Henderson et al., 2009). Parental responsibility is a key factor in controlling the childhood obesity epidemic (Henderson et al., 2009). The growth of childhood obesity discourse can be discovered through Governmentality where lifestyle choices can affect in the growth of childhood obesity (Henderson et al., 2009). Governmentality is a way to see who has the most influence in the growth of childhood obesity whether it is parents, the marketing and advertising, or the government (Henderson et al., 2009). Discovering childhood obesity and its governance in a theoretical frame and application has several strong points (Henderson, 2015). Governmental wisdom is a way to explain the policy’s feedback, which endorses individualism over systematic solutions on the public level (Henderson, 2015; Powell, & Gard, 2015). Governmental wisdom defenses restrained healthcare resources and blamed the decrease of other chronic disease risk factors (Henderson, 2015; Powell, & Gard, 2015).

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Discovering childhood obesity discourse has its limitations when using theoretic perception (Henderson, 2015). However, disparities in the structure are disregarded in this perception, and therefore it is inadequate from the point of view of critical theorists (Henderson, 2015). Disparities are arising from gender, class, and parental capability to fulfill policy essentials (Henderson, 2015). The perception of Foucault evaluates good parenting and its illustrations (Henderson, 2015). However, Foucault also evaluates the influence of parents failing to encounter parenting standards; Foucault’s opinions are not successful in discovering that marginalized females are failing to meet those standards (Henderson, 2015). Parenting standards often disregard restricted cultural and physical resources in the parenting medium (Henderson, 2015). Negotiating decent parenting standards is usually a must for younger and economically less fortunate single mothers (Henderson, 2015). Young and economically less fortunate single mothers’ negotiation is mostly influenced by cultural capital limitations and limited physical and economic resources (Henderson, 2015). In argument, Foucault is linked with a group of theorists who consider the human body as passive (Henderson, 2015; Crossley, 1996). A subsequent criticism defines the theoretic tension between having the freedom to act or passively living in it; this concept does not necessarily conflict with Foucault’s point of view (Henderson, 2015; Crossley, 1996). The idea of the body being passive is argued, that individuals can act regarding their bodies and weight (Henderson, 2015; Crossley, 1996). Childhood and parents empowerment programs that encourage healthy lifestyle choices do have such arguments of body passiveness and acting upon obesity (Henderson, 2015).

Foucault saw Governmentality as an art that includes strategically planned practices and knowledge of governing, which outline the governed individuals’ role. Neo-liberalism was then derived from Governmentality, where less power was imposed. Governance became indirect, and the public also became more health-conscious and aware. Healthcare professionals view childhood obesity as a sophisticated phenomenon that needs to be dedicated and special attention. In early childhood, most children will not have much of a choice in what is put on their plates. However, the complexity of decision-making develops in childhood. This does not mean that children should change their lifestyle choices, especially in the presence of childhood obesity. This epidemic, the presence of Neo-liberalism, is not improving the situation, and perhaps more restrictions to control this epidemic are needed.

#heathcare #medical #medicalcare #pharmaceuticals #healthcareprofessional #nurses #healthprofessionals

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