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Naturalistic observation method

This research method is used by most of the therapists and social scientists. The observational method focuses on studying the natural behavior of the participant in the everyday environment. This kind of research is usually carried out in such situations where the lab studies are sophisticated and non-beneficial. With the help of observational methods, psychologists can get much better assumptions of the ways and causes of why people react to certain situations. The observational process aims to represent the overall behavior of the subject. There are some strengths and limitations associated with this method.

Advantage: The most important recognized merit of this method is that it has higher ecological stability. Also, this helps researchers to establish brand-new concepts about natural settings.

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Disadvantage: The major demerit of naturalistic observation is that this method does not help to find the exact cause of the behavior. If two researchers are examining the same situation, they may draw different conclusions from that moment of observation.

Case study

A case study is an in-depth investigation of a person, a group of people, or a phenomenon. In case studies, a variety of techniques are employed to collect the data such as one-on-one interviews, questionnaires, and psychometric tests. Earlier the research method was used in the clinical field but now psychologists use this method to inquire about a person, group, or community. This process involves research to observe the client’s behavior and provide detailed information about that behavior. The case study generally involves reconstructing a client’s case history, which is known as ‘idiographic research’. A case study is considered beneficial then only when it is able enough to convey the difference between the factual description and the opinion of the researcher, but the obtained information may not apply to every individual. The merits and demerits of the case study are listed below:

Advantage: The case studies have numerous advantages. The most prominent among all is that it can be done from a remote distance and it is not at all expensive. The investigators need not be present at the specific location to carry out the research. The interviews can be conducted over the phone. In addition to this, the cost associated with this process of obtaining data is almost negligible.

Disadvantage: The case studies are extremely time-consuming. As these studies are based on qualitative analysis, researchers need to be highly accurate in terms of collecting and presenting the data, which requires a lot of time.

Survey method

The survey method is a strategy for logical research where the researcher attempts to measure and assess the state of the community in comparison to one or more characteristics. The researchers do not interfere with the object of the exploration, he essentially records the circumstance as it is. The gathering of the information, the data building, and the data testing are the purposes of survey research. The information in surveys is required to be exploratory and descriptive, and the data must be explanatory and predictive. The pros and cons linked with the survey method are as follows:

Advantage: The most profound advantage of using surveys in psychological research is that they allow them to gather large amounts of data in relatively less period. They represent various attributes of a large number of populations which in turn helps to extract the most accurate results.

Disadvantage: The survey research can not be considered appropriate when it takes into consideration controversial issues. The controversial questions are not answered as accurately by the individuals as they face difficulty in recalling the information. The authenticity behind the issue is not revealed as effectively as the face-to-face interviews do.


    1. McLeod, S. A. (2019, Aug 03). Case study method. Simply Psychology:
    2. McLeod, S. A. (2015, June 06). Observation methods. Simply psychology:
    3. N., Pam M.S., ‘SURVEY RESEARCH,’ in, April 13, 2013, (accessed February 3, 2020).
    4. Sarah Mae Sincero (Mar 18, 2012). Advantages and Disadvantages of Surveys. Retrieved Feb 02, 2020 from

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