Chapter 2 “Individual and Organizational Ethics” What are the “Stages of Moral Development” according to the textbook?Explain the nature of stakeholder responsibility and its ethical basis as stated in the textbook. Your response should be at least 150 words and you must provide a logical answer from the chapter readings and you must provide the page(s) number. Explain what the utilitarian principle and the distributive justice and golden rules principle suggest as stated in the textbook. In order to receive full credit your response should be a minimum of at least 100 words and you must provide a logical answer from the chapter readings.PLEASE SEPARATE YOUR ANSWERS AND USE APA STYLE!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!
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13th Edition
Don Hellriegel
Texas A & M University
John W. Slocum, Jr.
Southern Methodist University
Organizational Behavior,
Thirteenth Edition
Don Hellriegel & John W. Slocum, Jr.
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To Lois (DH)
To Gail (JWS)
Brief Contents
Part 1: Introduction and Ethical Foundations 1
Chapter 1
Chapter 2
Learning about Organizational Behavior 2
Individual and Organizational Ethics 32
Part 2: The Individual in Organizations 67
Understanding Individual Differences 68
Perceptions and Attributions 102
Learning Concepts to Improve Performance 130
Motivating Employees 156
Motivation: Goal Setting and Reward Programs 190
Workplace Stress and Aggression 218
Part 3: Leadership and Team Behaviors 251
Interpersonal Communication in Organizations 252
Leadership Effectiveness: Foundations 288
Leadership Effectiveness: New Perspectives 318
Developing and Leading Teams 346
Managing Conflict and Negotiating Effectively 382
Part 4: The Organization 411
Managerial Decision Making 412
Organization Design 444
Cultivating Organizational Culture 476
Managing Organizational Change 508
Part 5: Integrating Cases 541
A Day in the Life of Yolanda Valdez 542
Alan Mulally, CEO, Ford Motor Company 543
Conflict Resolution at General Hospital 545
Bob Knowlton 547
BMW’s Dream Factory and Culture 550
ROWE Program at Best Buy 553
Whole Foods Market 555
The Road to Hell 559
How Personal Can Ethics Get? 562
Appendix: BizFlix A-1
References R-1
Subject and Organizational Index I-1
Author Index I-19
Preface xix
Part 1: Introduction and Ethical Foundations 1
Chapter 1
Learning about Organizational Behavior 2
Learning from Experience: Indra Nooyi, Chairmain and CEO, PepsiCo 3
Leadership versus Management 4
Learning Framework 5
The Individual in Organizations 6
Leaders and Teams in Organizations 7
The Organization Itself 8
Competencies for Individual, Team, and Organizational Effectiveness 8
Ethics Competency 10
Key Attributes 10
Ethical Dilemmas 10
Ethics Competency: Robert A. Eckert, Chairman and CEO, Mattel, Inc. 11
Self Competency 12
Key Attributes 12
Self Competency: Indra Nooyi’s Development Journey 12
Career Development 13
Diversity Competency 14
Key Attributes 14
Categories of Diversity 15
Diversity Competency: Aetna’s Diverse Discoveries Program 17
Across Cultures Competency 17
Key Attributes 18
Avoiding Stereotypes 18
Across Cultures Comeptency: Carlos Ghosn, CEO, Nissan-Renault 18
Communication Competency 19
Key Attributes 19
Communication Competency: Maureen Chiquet, Global CEO, Chanel S.A. 20
Teams Competency 21
Key Attributes 21
Teams and Individualism 22
Teams Competency: Grand Reid, President, Mars Drinks 22
Change Competency 23
Key Attributes 23
Change Competency: Indra Nooyi Leads Change at PepsiCo 24
Blur: Constant Change 24
Chapter Summary 25
Key Terms and Concepts 26
Discussion Questions 26
Experiential Exercise and Case 27
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Key Competencies Self-Assessment Test 27
Case: Diversity Competency—Accenture’s Work–Life Balance Programs 29
Chapter 2
Individual and Organizational Ethics 32
Learning from Experience: Anne Mulcahy, Chairman and Former CEO of Xerox,
Commits to Business Ethics 33
Individual Differences and Ethics 34
Stages of Moral Development 34
Moral Intelligence 36
Ethics Competency: Anne Mulcahy’s Ethical Leadership 36
Decision Making and Ethics 37
Ethical Intensity 38
Ethics-Based Principles 39
Concern for Affected Individuals 43
Benefits and Costs 44
Determination of Rights 46
Procedural and Interactional Justice 46
Change Competency: James McNerney, CEO of Boeing 47
Diversity and Ethics 49
Diversity and Ethical Cultures 49
Increasing Diversity as Opportunity 49
Generation Diversity and Ethics 50
Sexual Harassment 52
Diversity Competency: Verizon’s Workplace Diversity 54
Stakeholder Responsibility and Ethics 55
Stakeholder Pressures 56
Ethics Competency: Johnson & Johnson’s Stakeholder Ethics and Principles 57
Sustainable Development 58
Assessing Responsibility to Stakeholders 60
Chapter Summary 62
Key Terms and Concepts 63
Discussion Questions 63
Experiential Exercise and Case 64
Experiential Exercise: Ethics Competency—What Is Your Decision? 64
Case: Diversity Competency—Consensual Relationship Agreements 65
Part 2:
The Individual in Organizations 67
Chapter 3
Understanding Individual Differences 68
Learning from Experience: Steve Jobs at Apple 69
Bases of Personality 70
Heredity 71
Environment 72
Self Competency: David Neeleman of JetBlue 76
Personality and Behavior 77
Big Five Personality Factors 77
Self-Esteem 81
Locus of Control 82
Emotional Intelligence 83
Teams Competency: Why Personality Is Important at Starbucks 84
Work-Related Attitudes 85
Components of Attitudes 86
Attitudes Affecting Job Performance 86
Across Cultures Competency: Mercedes-Benz 90
Diversity Competency: Deloitte & Touche 92
Emotions at Work 93
A Model of Emotions 93
Cross-Cultural Differences 95
Chapter Summary 96
Key Terms and Concepts 97
Discussion Questions 97
Experiential Exercises and Case 97
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—What Are Your Cultural Values? 97
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—What’s Your Emotional IQ? 99
Case: Self Competency—Larry Ellison at Oracle Computer 100
Chapter 4
Perceptions and Attributions 102
Learning from Experience: Jim Sinegal, Cofounder and CEO of Costco 103
Perceptual Process 104
Across Cultures Competency: McDonald’s Use of Feng Shui 106
Perceptual Selection 107
External Factors 107
Communication Competency: Hand Gestures 109
Internal Factors 109
Person Perception 111
The Perceived 111
The Perceiver 112
The Situation in Foreign Assignments 112
Self Competency: Doing Business in Arab Countries 114
Perceptual Errors 114
Perceptual Accuracy 114
Perceptual Defense 115
Stereotyping 115
Halo Effect 116
Projection 117
Impression Management 117
Attribution Process 119
Making Attributions 120
Internal versus External Causes of Behavior 120
Ethics Competency: The Gap 123
Attributions of Success and Failure 124
Chapter Summary 126
Key Terms and Concepts 126
Discussion Questions 126
Experiential Exercise and Case 127
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—The Perception Process 127
Case: Self Competency—Joan Murphy 128
Chapter 5
Learning Concepts to Improve Performance 130
Learning from Experience: Working at United Parcel Service 131
Learning Through Rewards and Punishments 133
Classical Conditioning 133
Operant Conditioning 134
Contingencies of Reinforcement 135
Positive Reinforcement 136
Self Competency: Coming to Work Today? 138
Organizational Rewards 139
Negative Reinforcement 139
Extinction 140
Punishment 141
Ethics Competency: Time Off for Bad Behavior 143
Insights for Leaders 144
Schedules of Reinforcement 145
Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement 145
Fixed Interval Schedule 146
Across Cultures Competency: Flowers: A Symbol of Love? 146
Variable Interval Schedule 147
Fixed Ratio Schedule 147
Variable Ratio Schedule 148
Social Learning Theory 149
Symbolizing 149
Forethought 149
Vicarious Learning 150
Self-Control 150
Teams Competency: Steelcase Inc. 151
Self-Efficacy 151
Insights for Leaders 152
Chapter Summary 153
Key Terms and Concepts 154
Discussion Questions 154
Experiential Exercise and Case 154
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—What Is Your Self-Efficacy?
Case: Self Competency—Joe Salatino, President of Great Northern
American 155
Chapter 6
Motivating Employees 156
Learning from Experience: Working at Starbucks 157
Motivational Processes 158
Core Phases 159
Insights for Leaders 160
Satisfying Human Needs 161
Needs Hierarchy Model 161
Learned Needs Model 163
Self Competency: John Schnatter of Papa John’s Pizza 167
Insights for Leaders 168
Designing Jobs 169
Motivator–Hygiene Model 169
Motivator Factors 169
Hygiene Factors 169
Job Characteristics Model 170
Insights for Leaders 173
Teams Competency: SEI Investments 174
Cultural Influences 174
Influencing Performance Expectations 175
Expectancy Model 175
Insights for Leaders 179
Communication Competency: Intuit 180
Ensuring Equity 180
Equity Model: Balancing Inputs and Outcomes 180
Ethics Competency: How Tempted Are You? 182
Procedural Justice: Making Decisions Fairly 183
Insights for Leaders 185
Chapter Summary 185
Key Terms and Concepts 186
Discussion Questions 187
Experiential Exercise and Case 187
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—What Do You Want from
Your Job? 187
Case: Communication Competency—SAS Institute 188
Chapter 7
Motivation: Goal Setting and Reward Programs 190
Learning from Experience: Enterprise Rent-A-Car 191
Model of Goal Setting and Performance 192
Importance of Goal Setting 192
Challenge 194
Teams Competency: Jeff Gordon’s Rainbow Warriors 196
Moderators 197
Mediators 199
Performance 200
Across Cultures Competency: Hewlett-Packard 200
Rewards 201
Satisfaction 201
Consequences 202
Effects of Goal Setting 202
Conditions for Effective Goal Setting 202
Impact on Performance 203
Diversity Competency: Lockheed Martin MS2 Team 203
Limitations to Goal Setting 204
Insights for Leaders 205
Rewards Programs for Improving Performance 205
Informal Programs 207
Profit-Sharing Programs 207
Change Competency: Nucor’s Profit-Sharing Program 208
Skill-Based Pay Programs 209
Flexible Benefit Programs 209
Insights for Leaders 210
Reward Practices in Different Cultures 212
Chapter Summary 213
Key Terms and Concepts 214
Discussion Questions 214
Experiential Exercise and Case 214
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Goal Setting 214
Case: Diversity Competency—Allstate Insurance Company 215
Chapter 8
Workplace Stress and Aggression 218
Learning from Experience: Stress and Coping with a Layoff 219
Concept of Stress 221
Fight-or-Flight Response 221
Influences on the Stress Experience 222
Primary Stressors 223
Work-Related Stressors 223
Communication Competency: Workplace Incivility: How Not to Communicate 225
Life Stressors 226
Severe Stress 228
Impacts on Health 228
Impacts on Performance 229
Impacts on Job Burnout 230
Individual Differences and Stress 231
The Type A Personality 232
The Hardy Personality 233
Self Competency: Chesley B. Sullenberger III, Captain of
US Airways Flight 1549 234
Stress Management 235
Insights for Individuals 236
Insights for Leaders 236
Change Competency: Ortho-Clinical Diagnostics’ Wellness Program 238
Workplace Aggression 239
Self-Serving Biases 239
Workplace Bullying 240
Sexual Harassment 243
Workplace Violence 244
Diversity Competency: Darwin Realty 246
Aggression toward the Organization 247
Chapter Summary 247
Key Terms and Concepts 248
Discussion Questions 249
Experiential Exercise and Case 249
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Work-Related Stress Inventory 249
Case: Ethics Competency—Coleen Colombo and Colleagues Resist Mortgage Fraud 250
Part 3: Leadership and Team Behaviors 251
Chapter 9
Interpersonal Communication in Organizations 252
Learning from Experience: Julia Stewart, Chairman and CEO of DineEquity 253
Elements of Interpersonal Communication 254
Sender and Receiver 254
Transmitters and Receptors 255
Messages and Channels 255
Media Richness 256
Meaning and Feedback 257
Interpersonal Barriers 258
Ethical Interpersonal Communications 260
Communication Openness 261
Constructive Feedback 262
Appropriate Self-Disclosure 264
Active Listening 264
Change Competency: Susan Powers, Chief Information Officer, Travelport GDS 266
Nonverbal Communication 267
Types of Nonverbal Cues 267
Communication Competency: Poor Nonverbal Signals Prior to Layoffs 269
Status Differences 270
Intercultural Communication 270
Cultural Barriers 270
Across Cultures Competency: Tahir Ayub, Partner, PwC 273
Nonverbal Differences 273
Interpersonal Communication Networks 276
Individual Network 276
Informal Group Network 278
Formal Employee Network 278
Change Competency: Michael Ward’s Reflections on CSX’s One Plan
Redesign 279
Impacts of E-Mail 280
Impacts of Text and Instant Messaging 281
Chapter Summary 282
Key Terms and Concepts 283
Discussion Questions 284
Experiential Exercise and Case 284
Experiential Exercise: Communication Competency—Communication Inventory 284
Case: Communication Competency—Xographics 286
Chapter 10
Leadership Effectiveness: Foundations 288
Learning from Experience: Douglas Conant’s Leadership at Campbell Soup Co. 289
Power and Political Behavior 290
Leaders’ Use of Power 290
Political Behavior in Organizations 293
Insights for Leaders 295
Change Competency: Carol Bartz’s Use of Power to Change Yahoo! 296
Legacy Leadership Models 297
Traits Model of Leadership 297
Theory X and Theory Y Model 298
Behavioral Model of Leadership 300
Self Competency: Colin Powell’s “Lessons in Leadership” 303
Situational Leadership® Model 304
Leadership Styles 304
Situational Contingency 305
Choosing a Leadership Style 306
Communication Competency: Paul Millman, CEO, Chroma Technology 306
Insights for Leaders 307
Vroom–Jago Leadership Model 308
Leadership Styles 308
Situational Variables 308
Solution Matrix 309
Ethics Competency: The Bank CEO 310
Insights for Leaders 311
Chapter Summary 312
Key Terms and Concepts 313
Discussion Questions 313
Experiential Exercise and Case 313
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Personal Power Inventory 313
Case: Diversity Competency—Women on Corporate Boards 315
Chapter 11
Leadership Effectiveness: New Perspectives 318
Learning from Experience: John W. Thompson, Chairman of Symantec 319
Transactional Leadership 320
Core Components 321
Insights for Leaders 321
Change Competency: Mark Hurd, CEO, Hewlett-Packard 322
Leader–Member Exchange 323
Core Components 323
Insights for Leaders 325
Authentic Leadership 326
Core Components 326
Insights for Leaders 328
Self Competency: Lessons for Leading in a Crisis 328
Transformational Leadership 329
Core Components 330
Insights for Leaders 332
Ethics Competency: Ruben Vardanian, CEO of Russia’s Troika Dialog 333
Global Leadership and Organizational Behavior Effectiveness 335
Core Components 336
Insights for Leaders 339
Across Cultures Competency: Culture and Leadership in Mexico 339
Chapter Summary 340
Key Terms and Concepts 341
Discussion Questions 341
Experiential Exercise and Case 342
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—GLOBE Leader Behaviors Instrument 342
Case: Change Competency—Sir Richard Branson, Chairman, Virgin Group, Ltd. 344
Chapter 12
Developing and Leading Teams 346
Learning from Experience: Boeing’s Development of Teams and Their Leaders 347
Introduction to Groups and Teams 348
Classifications of Groups 348
Informal Group 348
Team 349
Effective Teams 350
Team Empowerment 350
Teams Competency: Empowered Teams at W. L. Gore & Associates 351
When to Use Teams 352
Stages of Team Development 353
Forming Stage 354
Storming Stage 354
Norming Stage 354
Performing Stage 355
Adjourning Stage 355
Types of Work-Related Teams 355
Functional Team 356
Problem-Solving Team 356
Cross-Functional Team 356
Self-Managed Team 357
Virtual Team 358
Global Team 360
Across Cultures Competency: Alcoa’s Global Virtual Teams 361
Core Influences on Team Effectiveness 362
Context 362
Leadership 364
Ethics Competency: Sanjiv Das’s Leadership at CitiMortgage 364
Goals 365
Team Size 366
Member Roles 367
Member Diversity 369
Diversity Competency: Angela Braly, CEO and President, WellPoint, Inc. 370
Norms 371
Cohesiveness 372
Potential Team Dysfunctions 373
Groupthink 374
Free Riding 375
Bad Apples Effect 376
Absence of Trust 376
Avoidance of Accountability for Results 376
Chapter Summary 377
Key Terms and Concepts 378
Discussion Questions 378
Experiential Exercise and Case 379
Experiential Exercise: Teams Competency—Team Assessment Inventory 379
Case: Teams Competency—Absence of Teamwork 380
Chapter 13
Managing Conflict and Negotiating Effectively 382
Learning from Experience: Cathy McBroom versus Federal Judge Samuel Kent 383
Conflict Levels 385
Intrapersonal Conflict 386
Interpersonal Conflict 386
Intragroup Conflict 387
Intergroup Conflict 388
Teams Competency: IBM’s Cross-Team Workouts 389
Interpersonal Conflict-Handling Styles 390
Collaborating Style 391
Compromising Style 392
Forcing Style 392
Accommodating Style 393
Avoiding Style 394
Insights for Leaders 394
Self Competency: Reflections on Conflict-Avoiding Managers 394
Negotiation in Conflict Management 395
Stages of Negotiation 395
Distributive Negotiations Strategy 396
Integrative Negotiations Strategy 397
Common Influences on Negotiation Strategies 398
Change Competency: GM and UAW Negotiate for Mutual Survival 400
Across Culture Negotiations 402
Differences in Negotiators 402
Cross-Cultural Emotional Intelligence 403
Insights for Leaders 404
Across Cultures Competency: Business Negotiations in Germany and Italy 405
Chapter Summary 406
Key Terms and Concepts 406
Discussion Questions 407
Experiential Exercise and Case 407
Experiential Exercise: Self Competency—Conflict-Handling Styles 407
Case: Communication Competency—Conflict Style Case Incidents 409
Part 4: The Organization 411
Chapter 14
Managerial Decision Making 412
Learning from Experience: David H …
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