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Introduction

It has been designed to assess reasons, consequences, and context for the use of drugs in clubs by adults in the city of U.S. There was a report from the adults for the utilization of drugs like GHB, Ecstasy, Rohypnol, LSD Ketamine, etc., in club under the interview discussion which included the measures of qualitative and quantitative. The drug that is most frequently used in the club is Ecstasy along with LSD, and ketamine. Most of the participants have reported that drugs are used for the purpose of experimenting and few of them reported that these have been used for enhancement of social activities. These drugs are mainly used in clubs, bars, and raves. Here around sixteen negative consequences have been reported for the use of drugs in the club. These consequences are characterized by lifestyle, psychological, and physical consequences arising from the use of drugs. Apart from these negative consequences, there are some positive consequences of the use of drugs in recreational clubs. The descriptions have been corroborated by the findings of the use of drugs in various countries and give additional information on the experience of the user based on positive consequences that are perceived by the use of drugs. Further, the reasons have been explored along with the positive consequences from which one can get the information related to growing trends of the drugs and their utilization.

There are hazards related to safety and health have been presented in the events of the rave as the settings are dangerous, further there is a potential for disaster. One single emergency might result in serious injury or death for most of people. Under the scene of the rave, there is a chance of a huge disaster involving substances lethal or toxic related to drugs, fire outbreaks, crushing because of the crowd, police raids, or emergencies [16].

There are some of the findings from the project epidemiological and gong surveys in the U.S. are an increase in the utilization of drugs among adults and adolescents at an alarming rate since 1990 [1]. There is an alert from the community of NIDA’s regarding the drugs and described that six drugs have been used in the raves and events of night dance GHB, MDMA, LSD, Methamphetamine, Rohypnol, and Ketamine. These drugs have the properties of stimulant, anesthetic, and hallucinogenic. Hallucination is caused by the DXM by consuming at higher doses and is popular in rave culture and college students [2]. The attraction of these drugs is for the experience of rave enhancement, affordability, accessibility, and acceptability.

Main body

Current knowledge on drugs

From the Australian and UK research findings it has been found that the use of drugs in the clubs is linked to the use of the poly substance patterns along with the social contexts [3]. As per rave scene studies, the report from the people who attended the rave party used a couple of drugs at the time of the dance event [4]. These drugs have the effects of hallucinogenic and stimulants which are thought to enhance the experience of the rave by increasing the perception of sensory and dancing ability for an entire night. Under the UK dance scene study, most of the dance attendees around 88% consume drugs [4]. These rates of drug consumption have been matched or exceeded tobacco or alcohol use.

The U.S. and Australia have indicated that the users of the drug are educated, employed, and young with a socioeconomic background of upper to middle [5]. The utilization level of the drugs is higher in the male in comparison to that of the females. Anyhow drugs have emerged in association with rave culture in the U.S. and the appearance of the use has been diffused in various social contexts [6]. It has been found in [15] that making use of inhalants, LSD, and amphetamines under the settings of the parties related to nonrave are around 93% in Australia whereas 30% of people make use of Ketamine. In the rave, the one and the only drug used is ecstasy that too with is 85.7%, and under the context of the nonrave, it is 66.7%. As per the reports of the U.S. that is from the city of New York, the utilization of drugs is with respect to the locations like schools and shopping malls and context which is outside the venue of the club or even rave [10]. Due to the popularity of the drugs especially are mentioned above, information related to the utilization reasons followed by the negative consequences like impairment of the memory and negative effect in association with emerged use.

Reasons for the utilization of drugs in club

The research is limited to finding the reasons for the utilization of drugs in clubs. The main focus of the research is to find the reasons for the purpose of utilizing illicit substances along with alcohol before the popularity of the drugs. [7] Provides the reasons for the utilization of various substances like LSD, alcohol, and marijuana in the U.S. As per their research, they found some of the reasons for drug utilization are relaxation, activities of recreational and social enhancement, and experimentation. In [8] young adults and adolescents study found the reasons in three categories reducing tension, experiencing the effect of drugs, and peers relating.

As per the [14], the reasons have been assessed for the drug usage which includes two types of drugs such as LSD and ecstasy between the UK adult users of the polydrug. Out of which 48.6% are using Ecstasy and 25% are using LSD. The report from the users of ecstasy stated that they make use of the physical activity increase, remain awakened, and are intoxicated. Users of LSD have reported that the drugs have been used for the effects of euphoric and intoxicating purposes for increasing physical activity and followed by social interaction enhancement. The experience of the individual related to the consequences resulting from drug utilization is used for the purpose of influencing drug usage reasons and frequency.

The organization along with the events of rave settings are the factors responsible for the customer’s ill health, accidents, and injuries along with the issues where attention is needed and addressed. Initially, due to overcrowding, there are several problems such as exceeding the regulation of safety and fire, and is due to over capacity or people allowed by the staff of security from fire door, fainting, and bruised feet. Second hazards related to safety and health are consistent in the events of raves specifically due to the management practice of negligence and poor facility maintenance such as slippy floors, dirty toilets, broken glass, stuffy and humid atmosphere, inadequate security, seating insufficiency and facilities of unhygienic food [16].

The negative consequences are documented related to the club drugs and their utilization and further, the consequences have been categorized into general lifestyle, psychological, and physical effects.

Physical Effects: Ecstasy contains the effect of neurotoxic on the neurons of serotonergic which affects memory, sleep, and mood through depleting the levels of serotonin [6]. Topp along with their colleagues have found that on average it has experienced four side effects related to psychology and eight effects related to the physical by ecstasy users in Australia. It has been found by the users of ecstasy that there will be a memory and concentration deficit along with the slow processing of mental ability are the resultants from the use of ecstasy [9].

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The major hazards for the utilization of particular drugs are difficult as most of the users are poly-drug consumers. The normal measure for the physical harmful effects of the use of drugs is visiting the emergency room pertaining to the drugs [10].

Psychological Effects: Users of ecstasy also reported negative effects to a greater extent like aggression, depression, mood swings, and anxiety after utilization of ecstasy [11]. In a review of the effects related to the psychology of the consumption of ecstasy [9]. It has been reported that the heavy utilization of ecstasy may lead to hostility, impulsivity, anxiety, and heightened depression. The effects caused due to the ecstasy may remain for days and even for months [9]. The reports from colleagues of Verheyden on the female users of ecstasy revealed that the depression after four days is more as compared to that of the same day which is in the users of male ecstasy through a control group of polydrug usage.

Dependence and abuse: Here the information related to the abuse by the use of drugs is limited. In [12] it has been found from the U.S. users of ecstasy in both adults and adolescents 43% are under the criteria of diagnosis and 34% are under the criteria of abuse. In the early study [13] it was found that 32% of the people had been using for five years and continue to use whereas have been dropped which is they stopped using. The report from ecstasy regular users stated that debauching is not at all effective for increasing positive effects it is giving side effects in a negative way.

For the younger people who are not entered into work is difficult to determine the negative consequences of the lifestyle in association with the use of the drugs. As per the ecstasy users of the Australian study, it has been found from the colleagues of the top for the 40% of the people there are problems in the general lifestyle in terms of work, relationship, and financials further there will be a psychological and physical problem by the ecstasy use.

The utilization of drugs around New York has been on the rise compared to that of the past. The report from the narcotic division stated that there is an increase in drug investigations and arrests. Further, it has also been found that people remain high by using ecstasy rather than alcohol which is common in clubs on Saturday nights.

As per the report, ecstasy plays a major role in the negative consequences such as 50% of people facing problems with blurred vision, tingling, cold flashes, and sweating. For the additional 20% of the participants, there is breath shortness, memory lapse, vomiting, urinating inability, muscle aches, energy and weight loss, and so on. For the other 20%, they are facing the problem of paranoia, irritability, anxiety, confusion, and depression.

Through ecstasy use some of the positive consequences have been reported such as feeling good in terms of the sensitivity increase and along with the benefits of social like inhibition reduction, energy increase followed by the social skill improvement. By the use of LSD people have reported that insights can be gained along with open-mindedness.

Conclusion

As per the report stated in [4] drug user studies from both the Australia and UK, it has been found that the users of the drug are users of the poly substance. Further, people started using illicit drugs in the past year. It has been found there is a concurrency in the utilization of alcohol and marijuana along with the drugs.

The major reasons for the utilization of the drugs it is centered on the social context, it is mainly for enhancement of the experiences related to positive sensory instead of negative effect escape. Some of the reported positive consequences are good feelings, positive emotions, and social relationship enhancement in the party’s clubs and raves. Despite this, it has been reported that there are some physical symptoms associated with the dependence and abuse of drugs.

Raving along with ecstasy is associated with the devils related to overdose, damage of the brain, disease, exploitation, foreigners, death, crime, promiscuity, moral corruption, and public disorder. Even in the nineties, the figures of scaremongering authority have been quoted by mass media under politics, criminal justice, and medicine have been promoted as the drug scare as heroin screw-up and crack menace [16].

By the use of ecstasy, negative consequences have been reported in [5] and it has been found that Australian users of drugs have consequences related to psychological, physical, and lifestyle. Anyhow most of the symptoms have been recorded after the drug usage experience; it has been found the negative effects through multiple substance usage at one point in time. Some of the consequences that are reported positive in the U.S. are social relationship enhancement, and creating a good feel along with some negative consequences. It has been reported as per the context of the rave party [10].

References

    1. Johnston, L.D.; O’Malley, P.M. & Bachman, R. 2001. Monitoring the Future National Results on Adolescent Drug Use: Overview of Key Findings, 2000. Washington, D.C.: National Institute of Drug Abuse.
    2. Knowles, C.R. 2000. Up All Night New York: Red House Press.
    3. Parrott, A.; Sisk, E. & Turner, J.J.D. 2000. Psychobiological problems in heavy “ecstasy” (MDMA) poly-drug users. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 60: 105-10.
    4. Akram, G. & Galt, M. 1999. A profile of harm reduction practices and co-use of illicit drugs among users of dance drugs. Drugs: Education, Prevention and Policy 6(2):215-25.
    5. Topp, L.; Hando, J; Dillon, P.; Roche, A. & Solowij, N. 1999. Ecstasy use in Australia: Patterns of use and associated harm. Drug and Alcohol Dependence 55: 105-15.
    6. McDowell, D.M.2001. Ecstasy and club drugs: established and possible dangers. Washington, D.C.: U.S. House of Representatives, Committee on the Judiciary. Available at: www.house.gov/judiciary/mcdo0615.htm.
    7. Johnston, I..D. & O’Malley, P.M. 1986. Why do the nation’s students use drugs and alcohol? Self-reported reasons for nine national surveys. Journal of drug issues 16(1): 29-66/
    8. Segal, B. 1986. Confirmatory analyses of reasons for experiencing psychoactive drugs during adolescence. International Journal of the Addictions 20 (11-12): 1649-62.
    9. Morgan, M.J. 2000. Ecstasy (MDMA): A review of its possible persistent psychological effects. Psychopharmacology 152:230-48.
    10. Community Epidemiology Work Group (CEWG). 2000. Epidemiologic Trends in Drug Abuse: Volume 1: Highlights and executive summary. Bethesda. Maryland: National Institute of Drug Abuse, National Institutes of Health.
    11. Morgan, M. 1998. Recreational use of “ecstasy” (MDMA) is associated with elevated impulsivity. Neuropsychopharmacology 19(4): 252-64.
    12. Cottler, L.B.; Womack, S.B.; Compton, w.m. & Ben-Abdallah, A.2001. Ecstasy abuse and dependence among adolescents and young adults: Applicability and reliability of DSM-IV criteria. Human Psychopharmacology: Clinical and Experimental 16: 599-606.
    13. Beck, J. & Rosenbaum, M. 1994. Pursuit of ecstasy: the MDMA Experience. Albany, New York: State University of New York Press.
    14. Boys, A,; Marsden, J. & Strang, J. 2001. Understanding reasons for drug use amongst young people: A functional perspective. Health education Research 16:457-69.
    15. Lenton, S.; Boys, A. & Norcross, K. 1997. Raves, drugs, and experience: Drugs used by a sample of people who attend raves in Western Australia. Addiction 92 (10): 13327-37.
    16. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/320623461_The_Use_of_Ecstasy_and_Dance_Drugs_at_Rave_Parties_and_Clubs_Some_Problems_and_Solutions

#heathcare #medical #medicalcare #pharmaceuticals #healthcareprofessional #nurses #healthprofessionals

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