Construct questions for a scripts for a video where you will demonstrate three (3) of the techniques described in McMinn’s book with a volunteer (“client”). There should be a minimum of 18 quetions (6 per technique).Background on the volunteer: Married white male in his early 50’s who has suicidal ideations, a history of excessive drinking, recent job loss with inconsistent job history the past 14 years. The “client has a child and has been married for 20+ years but experienced extreeme highs and lows financially.Attached is the 1/2 of the textbook and will attach the remainder after the assignment has been awarded. I do not need this in APA format
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K。rl r。。urns h。me from 。is fi虹。unS。hng app。in,me。,, 。P。nS
his Bible to Psalm l, and begins reading.負Happy are those who do
not follow the advice of血e wicked, Or take the path that simers
億ead, Or Sit in血e seat ofsco鋲が.
Karl sets the Bible on hi lap and reflects on血e past ninety
minutes. He thinks abou=he relief he felt telling Dr. Listner
址ngs he had never disclosed to anyone before. He血inks ofher
COmfordng smile and how genuinely concemed she seemed co be.
But Kad also has nagging doubts. IfDr. Listner is reauy a Christian
COunSelor as she claims, Why didn,t she mention God?Why didn・t
She have a Bible on her desk or in a visible spot on her book‑
She蹄Maybe the Christian antipsychoIogy books Karl has read
are correct; maybe Dr. Listner is a priest ofa rival religion. Maybe
he is fanowing the
advice ofthe wicked,, by going to a Chris‑
dan counselor. Maybe he was sitting ̀缶1 the seat 。fscoifers,, while
SWaying in the swivel rocker in Dr. Listner七o缶ce.
Karl keeps reading: =But血eir delight is in the law ofthe Lord,
and on his law they meditate day and night・They are like trees
Planted by streams of water, Which yield their丘uit in its season,
and their leaves do not wi血er. In all that they do
they prosper・,・
Karl sets the Bible down again and reflects 。n a neW Set Of
question§・ Does this mean that my depression will go away
if I reflect more on the pro血ses of ScriptuI.e? Am =ooking
Should have sex with him whenever he wanted享egardless of the
fact that his wife had recendy been raped by a stranger.
Many ofKarlS questions about the abserice ofScripture in his
丘rst Chris。an counseling experience seem valid・ So do many of
Dr. Listner[ concems about using Scripture in counse血g. So
What is the right answer? Should Christians use Scripture in com‑
Seling or not? This question
1ike the si宣血ar question about prayer
PO§ed at the beginning ofchapter 3, is too general to be mear止ng‑
fu⊥A better question is
質In u′hat初′a)′5 Should Scripture be used in
初h chents and mder初ch circumstances?,, Though
Christian counselors answer this question di鱈erently depending
On PrOfessional, religious, and ideological assumptions, Various
methods of using Scripture in counseling deserve careful consid‑
eradon and cridcal evaluation,
P5yCho i鍛′
PsychoIogical joumals and books include nu皿erous references to
Christian Scriptures, but few have direct relevance to Chrisdan
and even fewer are directly related to using the Bible
in coullSeling・As wi心血e previous chapter, my gOal is not to pro‑
Vide a comprehensive庇erature review but rather a sampling of
血e types ofardcles and books that have implications fbr Christian
Many psychological cridques and evaluadons of scriptural princi‑
Ples and characters are available. Between January 1990 and May
1995, the word Bible was included in lO5 articles referenced in
PsychLit, an electronic index ofpsychoIogyjoumals. The m勾ority
Of these arddes pertain to a psychoIogical evaluadon of a bibli‑
Cal concept or person.This is not surprising. As interest in narra‑
tive psychoIogy increases
the tooIs ofliterary criticism are more
widely used in psychoIogy joumals. For example, a number of
authoI.S have produced psychoanalytic cridques of
biblical charac‑
ters in recent years.
Applying psychology,s methods to mderstanding the Bible
appears to be relatively rare among explicitly Christian authors・
perhaps because we fear the d山近ng ofscriptural tru血wi血con‑
temporary literary or social‑SCientific theories. However
Christian au血ors cautiously advocate using psychology and care‑
ful bibheal scholarship to understand the characters and stories of
the Bible.1
Some authors have used Scripture as a foundation for develop‑
ing responsible counseling strategies and techniques that share
common features with traditional models of psychotherapy For
example, a number of authors have advocated models of Chrisdan
counseling that demonstrate a commitment to Scripture as well as
psychoIogical theory.2
Ochers have used Scripture to support existing counseling
methods or models. For example, Daniel Sweeney and Garry
Landreth describe scriptural support for using play血erapy in treat葛
ing children.3 A number of authors use Scripture to support vari‑
ous form ofcognitive therapy, eSPeCially radonal‑emOtive therapy.4
0ne au血or condudes that ̀RET is based on a thoroughly biblical
the importance of what one thinks:,5 using Scripture to
support existing models ofpsychotherapy has generated some con‑
flict and concem among many Christians. Some Christian anti‑
psychoIogists see psychoIog)「 aS a COmPe。ng fai血・ arguing that it
is completely incompatible with Scripture.6 others have o節ered
more measured criticISm, SuggeSting that we must carefully eval‑
uate worldview assumptions before importing and modifying a
psychotherapy technique and ca11ing it Christian counseling.7
Some counselors advocate using Scripture as a therapeutic inter‑
vendon・ For example, Various authors have suggested using Bible
PasSageS in church‑based recovery groups to help con丘ont themes
。f codependenc男using Scripture in marital counseling to help
COuPles recover丘om sexual a飴lrs・ uSing Bible stories in individ̲
ual cmd therapy”Sing the BibIe to confi.ont irra。onal be蟻in
RET and using Scripture memory and meditation as homework
in cogn王tive血erapy.8
In one survey almost half (43 percent) of the members of the
Christian Association for psychoIogical Studies (CAPS) reported
expheitly teaching biblical 。oncepts to 。ients. Over two‑thirds
(71 percent) implicitly used biblical concepts in their counseling
WOrk.9 while chese survey results suggest a relatively frequent use
Ofbibhal concepts in counseling, they do not address the actual
direct use ofScripture in counse血g・ In another survey of CAPS
reSPOndents were asked to describe Chris。an interven̲
tions they used in counse血g∴O of the interventions reported,
13 percent invoIved the direct use of Scripture in counseling.
When some ofthe same respondents were interviewed and acked
to describe critical incidents they had fhoed in counseling and the
interventions血ey used in response, Ody 3 percent of the inter̲
Ven。ons described invoIved the direct use of Scripture・ Thus, it
appears that directly using Scripture as part of comse血g is rela‑
tively rare, eVen among Chrisdan counselors.
Ano血er use ofScripture in psychoIogy is not lin正ed to Chrisdan
COuuselors. Some have suggested using the Bible as a self=help book
with religious clientst Even Albert Ellis
a Self=pro。aimed atheist and
OutsPOken opponent ofdevout refigious f誼h・ had this to say abouc
the Bible ln a reCent article:
I thi血tha,t I can safty say that the
Judeo‑Chris。an Bib]e is a sel址elp book that has probably enabled
mOre PeOPle to make more extensive and inten{ive personafty and
behavioral changes than a11 professional therapists combined.,・11
Authough Chris。ans may dislike血e idea ofreducing血e Bible
to a selfhelp book言t is heartening that some non‑Christian
therapists perceive an increasing need to work wi血in血e value
systems of Christian clients.
Though the Bible oifers much more than se皿elp, there are
times when 。ients are searChing for answers that can be readfty
found in Scripture. For example, COunSelors who use cognitive
therapy often work wi血clients to modify faulty core belie短hat
have contributed to poor selエavareness and umecessarily pain餌
emo。onal experiences. Medita。ng on Scripture can help Chris‑
。an clients change these beliefi.Those who beueve they are com‑
pletely unloved and destined for r壇tion can meditate on Paulis
words to Roman Christians: =But God proves his Iove for us in
血at while we stin were sinners Christ died for us,) Oiom. 5:8).
Those who believe they are a11 alone・ isolated and abandoned, Can
remember t:he psa血st,s proclanation: =God is our refuge and
strength, a Very PreSent help in trouble,, (Ps・ 46:1)・Those who
feel overwhelmed wi血1ife
s burdens and God
can recall the words ofJames:
s apparent distance
Indeed we ca11 blessed those who
showed endurance滝u have heard of the endurance ofJob, and
you have seen the purpose of the Lord, how the Lord is com‑
passiomte and mercif証
(James 5:11)・
The perspectives and studies reported here reflect the ways var葛
ious authors have used Scripture in counseling. However, there
may be many additional possibilities that have not yet been
expIored・ Dr. Eric Johnson argues that the Bible belongs in psy‑
chological science and suggests eight ways Scripture can influence
chrisdan counselors and psychoIogists.12 First, che Bible plays an
e笹)eγientlat role in our lives
PrOViding a rich resource fdr wis‑
dom and personal maturity Second・ Scripture plays a jbundaとionaZ
role, PrOViding a common Star血g point for understanding our
basic assumpdons and behiefi.Third, it plays a co′宅teat
al role that
ahows us to understand human nature, meaIing, and purpose in
hfe. Fourth, Scl.ipture plays an
謝擁ai role, giving us standards
for what should be. Fi剣h, the Bible plays an cznth卿ol̀擁al role,
Providmg uS an aWareneSS Of the historical naI.rative of human sin
and divine redemption. Sixth, it plays a canonical role, PrOViding
an unchanging standard of truth・ Seventh, Scripture plays a dia‑
優c4l role, ProViding rich resources for discussion and comparison
between psychological knowledge and special revelation・ Eighth,
the Bible plays a c,t,atl
e role・ allowing us to consider and explore
COnCePtS and ideas tha亡might not be considered丘om a purely
PSyChoIogical worldview These eight roles that Johnson outlines
SuggeSt that Christian comselors have only begun to expIore the
POtential ofintegrating the Bible and psychoIogy.
Even iftheologians agreed on the role ofScripture in血eoIogy it
WOuld be impossible to summarize in a few pages.動complicate
the task further, theoIogians do not agree. Thadidonally
has been seen as the essential foundation for Chrisdan theoIogy.
David Kelsey suggests that
̀virtually every contemporary protes‑
tant theoIogian along the entire spectrum of ophion from the
through Karl Barth, Emil Brumer, tO Anders
Nygren, Rudolf Bultmam, Paul T皿ch and even Fritz Buri, has
acknowledged that any Christian theology worthy of the name
with Scripture:
in some sense of the phrase, be done ̀in accord
13 But Kelsey goes on to point ou=hat theoIogy
has changed in the past紙y years, and now a number of血eoIo‑
gims argue that
Scripture does not, and indeed, SOme add, CannOt
Serve as authority for cheology.,,14 R̀evisio正st theoIogy has risen
to pro皿inence with postmodemism, and Scripture is sometimes
reduced to a庇erary cons亡ruction of human attempts to under‑
stand God.
The few co皿ments I make here are li皿ited by my assump‑
tion that newer血eoIogy is not necessarily better theoIogy; I begin
With血e benef shared by Protestant theoIogians through血e cen‑
turies, that Scripture is an essentiaユtool for knowing God. Even
with this assumptio串here is considerable debate about the role of
human reason in approaching Scripture. Because of the vastness of
the topic, the lack of agreement among theoIogians, and my lim‑
ited theoIogical training, I make no attempt to survey the role of
Scripture in Chris。an theoIogy here. Rather・ I w皿focus on one
speci丘c problem regarding Scripture and theoIogy and discuss two
implications for how Christian counselors understand Scripture.
TheoIogical views of Scripture are plagued by the chicken‑
or‑the‑egg PrOblem. Do we fust know God through reason・ aS
Thomas Aquinas believed, and then understand Scripture because
we understand God? Or do we first know Scripture, Which a11ows
us to know God? In other words言s our knowledge of Scrip‑
ture shaped by our prior knowledge of God, Or does it work the
other way around? Each view has been supported by reputable
scholars. TheoIogian Millard Erickson proposes that this debate
is umecessary, that we can presuppose both a knowledge of God
and a knowiedge of Scripture as simultaneous and inseparable.15
God cannot be known apart Scripture, and Scripture camot
be properly understood without knowing God・Just as Scripture
helps us know God, God helps us understand Scripture. Until
we know God, Our Views and understanding of Scripture are
cIouded by our disbelief But with salvation comes a cleaning of
the lenses‑a CaPaCity to understand God,s Word more clearly
血ough not perfectly16
In血e same way, We muSt know something about ourselves in
order t:O know God. In血e first ofhis J侮t/妨e
John Calvin argued
that knowledge ofselfand knowledge of God are iuseparable・17 we
camot氏皿y know ourselves without underscanding God
ter, righteousness, and love
s charac‑
and we camot f皿y know God without
understanding ourselves, including our capacity for sin
Our human
丘租ty, and our deep Ionging for someone trauscendent・
Knowledge of se埠God, and Scripture are intertwined・ This is
What scholars call the he
′′11ene擁d冶le.「the text camot be sepa‑
rated缶om the perspectives ofthe reader
and the reader七perspec‑
tives are influenced by the text.The tex亡a丘ects our views of God
and self we see our need for God by understanding ourselves as
revealed in Scripture. God a鱈ects our capacity to understand the
text, and so does our humamess: We understand Scripture because
God has graciously granted us eyes to see
but even those eyes are
a節ected by our東山en human mture.
These intercomections of human namre, Godis character, and
Scripture have at least two important implicadons for Christian
COunSelors interested in using Scripture in counseling.
First, We muSt Culdvate and maintain respect for the Bible. Scrip‑
ture is our primary way ofknowing God. It is Godもau血orita‑
tive reveladon to humankind. VA ca11 itやecial IeWelation. Yes, We
See God in nature, but nature worship without special revelation
leads to animism and other heresies.Yes, We know God through
Prayer and meditation, but the New Age movement demonstrates
the directiouless confusion of splrituality unbounded by Scrip‑
ture. We need Scripture to understand God. John Calvin writes
Scripture, COllecting m Our minds the otherwise confused
notions of deity dispels the darkness and gives us a clear view of
the true God.
When we claim
all tru血is Godもtruth,
we are both correct
and incorrecc. All thac is true, Whe血er disc○vered through science,
literature, P皿osophy, theoIogy, COunSeling, Or ScrlPture, COmeS
from God・ However, SCience, literature, Philosophy, theoIogy,
COunSeling, and Scripture are not equally direct ways of knowing
God, and every way ofknowing God is li血ted by our hermeneu‑
tic methods for understanding truth. Scripture is血e mOSt direct
Way Oflmowing God; therefore it deserves our respect.
What does this mean for the Christian counselor? V7e must not
hesitate to revere the God revealed in Scripture as the ultimate

Your ciient, Frank, has been reading books on relaxa†ion and
medi†a†ion †echnlques. The books we「e asslened by a p「evious
COUnSelor, and they seem to be heiping him cope w冊his anxiety
PrOblems. 1∩ †he middle o=oday
s session, yOu a「e discussing肌e
loneiiness Frank feit as an oniy c刑d 「aised by two busy p「ofes‑
Sional peopie” He bec○mes †ea「ful
PUtS his head between hls
hands, and s仕s siIently for seve「ai minu†es. Even†ua=v he冊s his
head, l0Oks you in肌e eye, and says,
ve been †hinking abou†
個s, abou† how Ioneiy =ee上Some†imes =us出eel s†uck, aS i=he「e
is no†hing l can ever do †o feei anv better. Bu† i know †hat
s no川Ue.
There is a way ou† o=his. =us† need to keep Iooking inside myself.
m learning a lot in these medita=on exe「Cises. 1f i keep iooking
inside mvself, l know I w冊even書ua=y find the血th.
How do you respond? Here are three possibilities:
C)〆on l: ̀̀Yes, it is important to keep searching inside yourselffor
your values and your ideas ofwhat t:O do next. But I
m wondering
why it is so important to find the answers inside yourself
C)ptioタで2:寝Good idea. It is rea11y very important to keep searching
Qption 3;
I don
t think you
11 have much luck looking inside
yourself for tru血・ The Bible teaches we find truth through Jesus.
Jesus said, ̀I am the way, and血e truth, and the ife”
Though a good case正ght be made for any ofthese responses in
some counseling situations, I prefer option l. It gently chauenges
Frankもassumpdon血at he w皿find tI.uth iuside himself without
introducing harshness into the corrversation. Option l is likely
to lead into a meaningful discussion of the place and authority
Of Scripture in Frank
s出e. Option 2 unintentionally reinforces
Frank信dea that he w皿丘nd tru血inside himself Opdon 3 may
be so abrupt that it will stop Frank from exploring furt:her” He
might agree with the comselor only to avoid disapproval.
Second, Whife we must respect the authority of Scripture, We
Should also assume an attitude of初m召旬regarding our interpreta‑
tions ofScripture. Aithough Scripture is special reveladon, inspired
by God, it is always interpreted by fa11ible humans (2 Tim, 3:16).
Yes, knowing God helps us understand Scripture more dearly than
before, but we stiu bump against the limits ofhumanity.Thus, Our
humamess and the hemeneudc strategies we use in interpreting
Scripture limit our capacity t。 mderstand tmth,19
Nancy and Thom Bake「 come to see Rober†a, a lav counselor, for
ma研ai heip. One o白he d櫛cul†ies the Bakers face is conflic† over
†hei「 domes†ic roles. Nancy wants an egai胴「ian ma「「iage, bu†
Thom wan†s a more †radi†ionai, male‑headship ma「「iage. Robe「ta
lis†ens ca「efuily †o both Nancy and Thom, enCOu「ageS †hem †o
exp「ess凪ei「 desires and opinions †o one ano†her, and heips
Ihem iook a† the deepe「 psychoIogical beliefs tha† a「e ope「aト
ing benea肌†he su「face of awareness.Thom is ope「ating f「om †he
assumptlon †ha† only †he s†「Ong SUrVIve and one has †o be †ough
in †his wo「id †o succeed, He †「ies †o run his family †he same way.
Nancy ls operating f「Om †he assump†ion †hat her worth depends
On †he app「OVal she eiiCi†s f「om othe「s. Mos† of her個ends and
ex†ended famfty are in ega冊a「ian mar「iages, and they frequently
ques†Ion and c冊cize her abou† her mo「e †「ad嗣onal ma冊al 「ole.
She wan†s †o change her marriage to gain social approvai from
those she ca「es abou†.
Rober†a considers he汗WO POSSible responses. One op†ion is
†o use Sc「iptu「e †o †each肌e mgh† wav当o struc†ure a ma「「1age.
God by meditating on Scripture. Though both approaches are
important in bo血theoIogy and Christian spiritua叫y the con‑
te …
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