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Postpartum depression (PPD) affects a substantial ratio of first-time adolescent mothers. After childbirth, Adolescent mothers face unique, demanding situations that could make them more vulnerable. The affected mother is deprived of her ability to take care of her child (John A.yozwaik, 2010), and it additionally has been related to detrimental consequences on the cognitive and social development of the child (louder s.ali et. al,2009). The research was conducted on depression and other factors and the outcomes suggest that depression is related to less effective maternal-infant feeding interactions, much less self-belief in the ability to adequately take care of the new baby, a reliance upon emotion-centered coping such as emotional detachment, and withdrawal, and less satisfaction with social support (Susan panzarine et. al,1995). In another research, regression analyses indicated that social isolation, maternal competence, and weight-shape issues anticipated unique variance related to depression levels (Robyn Birkeland, et. al,2005 ). Another research conducted research in the population of Abbottabad shows that an adequate quantity of women are affected with Postpartum depression at the age of 18-45 and the outcomes discovered that Postpartum depression might affect the mothers who had low social support that may emerge as a risk factor to develop Postpartum (S.Farzana Kazmi, et. al,2013). Another study confirmed that the prevalence of postpartum depression in women is high and social support is a shielding element for postpartum depression independent of other risk factors, according to the findings of the study, it is recommended that the subsequent steps should be observed to make life more functional; first, screening women for Postpartum depression to have the chance of intervention; second, promotion of the social welfare system especially for those with predictive factors which include a history of depression; and third, enhancing educational programs for couples at the promotion of social support during the pregnancy period and afterward, to lower the incidence of postpartum depression (Atefeh Venezia, A study was conducted on adolescent mothers, and it has recommended that psychosocial interventions may be effective in treating postpartum depression in adolescent mothers. Clinical researchers are recommended to evaluate the effects of multimodal and integrated treatment procedures that consist of individual therapy, group therapy, a treatment that incorporates fathers and other important members of the adolescent’s life, in addition to medication (John A. Yozwaik,2010).In another research study, the result showed a significant and inverse relationship between social support and postpartum depression, although these results show, the amount of support acquired in the area of spouses’ parents, friends, and relatives was low, and it also caused postpartum depression and it is essential to draw the attention of midwives and health care providers to mothers and inform them about the significance of social support and its prominent role in reducing postpartum depression (Sayareh hajipoor, et. al,2021).

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Postpartum depression not only poses a significant problem in women, but it also has an impact on men. The research was conducted and its correlational result shows that paternal postpartum depression and maternal postpartum depression have an important implication for their family’s welfare (Goodman J.H.-2004). The postpartum period is related to several adjustments to fathers that cause risks for depression. The paper describes the results of the study of fathers’ depressed moods throughout the postpartum period. It had been hypothesized that the foremost important factors within the development of depressed mood in men would be those linked to the present situation. Thus, men whose partners were depressed would reveal a lot of depressive symptoms. It was also expected that depressed mood in men would be regarding low social support, the negative economic situation of a family, low quality of a marital relationship, and associated prenatal expectations concerning life with an infant (Dr. Eleonora, et. al,2006). The responses revealed that depression was present not solely in mothers, but also fathers. A family-centered approach is critical in giving fathers a way of support and inclusivity (Pamela Recto, et. al,2020). Another study was conducted and as a result, it was found that late adolescent fatherhood was considerably related to higher reporting of depressive symptoms. In this research, it is suggested that Unemployment status, parenting stress, previous history of depressive symptoms, and lack of social support were identified as risk factors for paternal depressive symptoms. It is time to pay more attention to fathers, who might be essential resources for both mothers and their children when they are mentally healthy and ready for their parenting role. It is suggested by various health professionals and social service providers that it is essential to identify vulnerable fathers, detect paternal depressive symptoms, and provide important programs to educate fathers as well as mothers concerning the negative consequences of paternal depressive symptoms and facilitate them to overcome traditional notions so that they will seek services (cookbook lee, et. al,2012). Awareness of Postpartum depression should be provided to both parents but in case of no awareness, postpartum depression remains untreated and it might have a profound impact on fathers’ ability to support their partners and promote the appropriate development of their children. It is to advise that treatment strategies should attempt to incorporate each partner. Moreover, it is considered that social support, from both parents, has a positive influence on both mothers and fathers, and if either parents or any of them suffers from postpartum depression then it affects both physically and emotionally on both parents. Professionals should be available to facilitate both mothers and fathers for confidential individual sessions, and peer support group meetings where both, together or individually, will discuss their problems in a nonjudgmental environment (Nicole Letourneau, et. al,2011). A study was conducted, and it shows that the prevalence of paternal postpartum depression (PPD) estimates that the initial two months of postpartum vary from 4 to 25 percent. The consequences of Paternal PPD have negative impacts on the family, as well as increasing emotional and behavioral problems among their children and increasing conflicts in the marital relationship. It is to be found that changes in hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, cortisol, vasopressin, and prolactin, throughout the postpartum period in fathers, might be a risk for paternal PPD. There would be other factors that lead fathers to postpartum depression; excessive stress from becoming a parent, and lack of social support for parenting (James E.swan,2007). Research was conducted and it shows a relatively high prevalence of depression in fathers should be focused on the study of PPD and perceived social support. It’s suggested that special attention should be given addition to increasing public awareness, communication skills, fathers’ postpartum depression, and its control once in the time of childbirth, and their predisposing factors in fathers (Malin kamalifard et. al,2014).

Adolescent Mothers and fathers encounter many challenges, during this transition from a young person who is only concerned for themselves to a responsible parent. A study was conducted on the prevalence of postpartum depression and social support in young parents, and the result shows that there were no significant differences found; social support and partner’s depression were significantly associated with depression (ling-ling Gao, et. al,2009). Social support is contributory to elevating well-being in the postpartum period. Adolescent mothers and fathers can draw support from several sources, which include parents, partners, siblings, and friends. The absence of social support during disturbing life events, especially partner support can be enormously depressing. The meta-analysis found that Regular screening, effective prevention, and appropriate treatment need to be implemented in this population.

#heathcare #medical #medicalcare #pharmaceuticals #healthcareprofessional #nurses #healthprofessionals

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