Neurological System In the previous weeks, you began to explore the pathophysiology of disorders and compensatory mechanisms. Throughout the remainder of the course, you consider the pathophysiology of disorders specific to the various body systems. You begin with the neurological system because, through nerve stimulation, this system affects every other system and function in the body. Since the scope of the neurological system is so broad, it relates to various disorders, many of which can also be tied to other systems. Consider an amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patient presenting with loss of movement in the limbs, severe pain, and difficulty breathing. While the root of these alterations is a neurological disorder, respiratory alterations will also occur. There is often an absence of a clear distinction between body systems and related disorders. Although you will likely evaluate patients presenting with neurological disorders that range from ALS to seizures and dementia, persistent pain is one of the major complaints in clinical settings. As an advanced practice nurse, it is important that you are able to find the trigger of the pain to properly diagnose and treat patients. This week you examine types of pain, as well as patient factors that impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of pain. Learning Objectives Students will: Compare types of painEvaluate the impact of patient factors on the pathophysiology of painEvaluate the impact of patient factors on the diagnosis and prescription of treatment of painUnderstand and apply key terms, concepts, and principles related to the neurological system Learning Resources Required Readings Huether, S. E., & McCance, K. L. (2017). Understanding pathophysiology (6th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Mosby. Chapter 13, “Structure and Function of the Neurologic System” This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system. It also explains the importance of the central, peripheral, and autonomic nervous systems. Chapter 14, “Pain, Temperature, Sleep, and Sensory Function” This chapter covers the role of pain, sleep, stress, and the senses on body functions. It also explores alterations involving pain, sleep, stress, and the senses. Chapter 15, “Alterations in Cognitive Systems, Cerebral Hemodynamics, and Motor Function” This chapter explores disorders of cognitive systems, neuromotor function, tone, movement, and motor performance. It also examines factors that impact these disorders as well as clinical manifestations. Chapter 16, “Disorders of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems and Neuromuscular Junction” This chapter examines the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, and evaluation and treatment of central and peripheral nervous system disorders. Tumors of the central nervous system are also covered. Chapter 17, “Alterations of Neurologic Function in Children” This chapter focuses on the pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, evaluation, and treatment of neurologic disorders and brain tumors in children. Normal growth and development is also examined. Hammer, G. D., & McPhee, S. J. (2019). Pathophysiology of disease: An introduction to clinical medicine (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education. Chapter 7, “Nervous System Disorders” This chapter begins with an overview of the structure and function of the nervous system to lay a foundation for exploring nervous system disorders. It then examines several nervous system disorders such as Parkinson’s disease, epilepsy, dementia, Alzheimer’s disease, and stroke. Chapter 12, “Disorders of the Adrenal Medulla” This chapter examines disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal medulla. It classifies disorders by the organ or tissue that is most impacted by the disorder. The pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, symptoms, and signs of the disorders are also covered. Chapter 19, “Disorders of the Hypothalamus & Pituitary Gland” This chapter covers the structure and function of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. It also explores disorders of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands. Chapter 21, “Disorders of the Adrenal Cortex” This chapter begins by exploring the structure and function of the adrenal cortex. It then explores disorders relating to alterations of the adrenal cortex. Required Media Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2012f). The neurological system. Baltimore, MD: Author. This media presentation outlines the pathophysiology of the neurological system and associated alterations. Optional Resources Alzheimer’s Association. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.alz.org/ National Multiple Sclerosis Society. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.nationalmssociety.org/index.aspx National Parkinson Foundation. (2016). Retrieved from http://www.parkinson.org/ Pain The neurological system affects all parts and functions of the body through nerve stimulation. Nerves also control the sensation and perception of pain. While pain can be described in a variety of ways, it is essentially labeled according to its duration and source. As an advanced practice nurse evaluating a patient, you need to consider the following questions: Does the pain quickly come and go, or is it persistent and ongoing? Does the pain arise at the source of injury or in another location? In this Discussion, you compare three common types of pain—acute, chronic, and referred. To Prepare Review this week’s media presentation on the neurological system, as well as Chapter 14 in the Huether and McCance text.Identify the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain. Consider the similarities and differences between these three types of pain.Select two of the following patient factors: genetics, gender, ethnicity, age, or behavior. Reflect on how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain. Write a description of the pathophysiology of acute, chronic, and referred pain, including similarities and differences between them. Then, explain how the factors you selected might impact the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and prescription of treatment for acute, chronic, and referred pain.