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Please answer each of these question from 200 to 300 words, but don’t use wikipedia or other websites. I have attach the requirements, questions, and notes from the class so you can just use it. This is the website from my class so you can use it; it contains vocabularies that could help you on the questions. https://www.iris.edu/hq/files/programs/education_a…Thank you!
questions_and_requirements.docx
fault_slip_and_seismic_waves.pdf
methods_of_analyzing_an_earthquake.pdf
seismicwavebehavior_building.pdf
seismographs.pdf
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Answer to these questions, each question is from 200 to 300 words only
Question #1: Explain how does fault slip result in:
a) The generation of seismic waves,
b) describe the propagation of these waves through the Earth,
c) their arrival and recording at a seismic station.
Question #2: Describe how the type of faulting resulting in an earthquake can be determined
through the analysis of seismograms, including:
a) the scientific question that was addressed in this work,
b) the types of data used to examine this question,
c) the main conclusion of your work.
Geology 112 – Earthquakes 4
Activity #2
Fault Slip & Seismic Waves
What is a Fault?
Fault Trace
6
Outline
5
• Features of faults
• Hanging Wall/Footwall
• Stress and strain
• Elastic rebound theory
• Stick-slip fault behavior
• Fault Slip & Seismic Waves
• Types of seismic waves
• Wave propagation
What is a Fault Scarp?
7
Fault Scarp on M7.1
Searles Valley
Faults in Outcrop
9
8
Fault Plane and Evidence of Slip
10
Types of Faults
11
Based on Hanging Wall/Footwall Geometry &
Displacement
Hanging Wall
Footwall
Fault
Which Block is the Footwall?
Which Block is the Hanging Wall?
Stick-Slip Behavior of Faults
Types of Faults?
12
Based on Hanging Wall/Footwall Geometry &
Displacement
Normal
Reverse/Thrust
Hanging Wall Down
Hanging Wall Up
Footwall Up
Footwall Down
13
Strike-slip
Horizontal Movement
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/animations/
What causes faulting?
14
What is Stress?
• Force (F) per Area
(A)
What is Strain?
• Change in shape, or
deformation, by an
applied stress
Components of
Stress
Normal Stress
15
• perpendicular to
surface
Shear Stress
• parallel to surface
Types of Stress?
Tension • Pull apart
16
Stress Conditions
Types of Faults
17
Compression
• Crunch together
Shear •slide horizontally
Tensional
Compressional
Shear
Stress
Stress
Stress
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/learn/animations/
Earthquake Machine
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
18
Earthquake Machine
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
19
Earthquake Machine
20
Fault Slip & Seismic Waves
21
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu/gen_eq_info.html
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
22
http://ds.iris.edu/spud/gmv/17667190
Passage of Seismic Wave
23
What is a Wave?
24
a wave is a disturbance or variation which travels through a medium.
The medium through which the wave travels may experience some
local oscillations as the wave passes, but the particles in the medium
do not travel with the wave.
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/Demos/waves-intro/waves-intro.html
Seismic Waves

Body Waves
Seismic Waves
25
27
26
• Travel through
interior of Earth
•Two types: P waves
and S waves
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu/gen_eq_info.html
28 Body Waves – Compressional Waves
Body Waves
29
“P Waves” = Fast Speed
Compressional Wave or P Wave

http://www.tjhsst.edu/~jlafever/wanimate/Wave_Properties2.html
http://www.eas.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/WaveDemo.htm
L. Braile Copyright 2004
Body Waves
Shear Wave or S Wave
Daniel A. Russell, Graduate Program in Acoustics,
The Pennsylvania State University
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/demos/waves/wavemotion.html
30
Body Waves – Shear Waves
“S Waves” = Intermediate Speed 31

http://www.tjhsst.edu/~jlafever/wanimate/Wave_Properties2.html
http://www.eas.purdue.edu/~braile/edumod/waves/WaveDemo.htm
L. Braile Copyright 2004
Particle Motion or Vibration Direction
Parallel to Propagation Direction
Particle Motion or Vibration Direction
Perpendicular to Propagation Direction
Daniel A. Russell, Graduate Program in Acoustics,
The Pennsylvania State University
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/demos/waves/wavemotion.html
Particle Motion
P Wave
32
Volunteers?
S Wave
33

Surface Waves
http://www.tjhsst.edu/~jlafever/wanimate/Wave_Properties2.html
34
Surface Waves = Rayleigh Waves
Daniel A. Russell, Graduate Program in Acoustics,
The Pennsylvania State University
http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/demos/waves/wavemotion.html
35
Surface Waves
36
Summary
• Features of faults
• Hanging Wall/Footwall
• Stress and strain
• Elastic rebound theory
• Stick-slip fault behavior
• Fault Slip & Seismic Waves
• Types of seismic waves
• P and S waves
• Surface waves
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu/gen_eq_info.html
37
Geology 112 – Earthquakes
!1
Activity #4 Methods of Analyzing an Earthquake
Objective: Learning Outcome #1- Methods
Activity 4 Outline
2
Last time
• Seismic Wave Properties
• How are earthquakes measured?
• Travel-time graph
This time
• Outcome #1 – Methods of scientific
investigation
• Where is the earthquake?
• What is the size of an earthquake?
4
3
Raypaths of Body Waves and Surface Waves
Surface waves
travel along
Earth’s
surface.
Body waves
(P and S)
travel inside
Earth.
While P- and S- waves radiate outward in all directions, surface
waves travel along the surface of the earth and decrease in
amplitude with depth.
From Tom Boyd’s WWW Site – http://galitzin.mines.edu/INTROGP/
6
What do you want to know?
3 Seismic Stations = 3 Seismometers
• When?
• Where?
• Depth?
•How big?
• Type?

Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
http://earthquake.usgs.gov/earthquakes/map/
Applying S-P Time Difference
Earthquake Location (S-P method)
Basic Principle
• 4 unknowns – origin time, x, y, z
• Data from seismograms – wave arrival times
!7
Measure S-P Time Difference
8
Plot S-P on Travel Time Curve
9
Plot Circle with Distance as Radius
10
Calculate Distance away from seismic station using S-arrival
time minus P-arrival time plotted this graph of travel-time
curves, but not direction.
Plot Another Circle with Distance as Radius
11
Plot a Third Circle with Distance as Radius
13
Location = Earthquake Epicenters and Depth
Earthquake Locations
14
Z=Depth
pP and P wave
15
Depth (pP-P method)
F = focus or hypocenter
E=epicenter
http://www.seismosoc.org/publications/SRL/SRL_70/srl_70-4_eq.html
Depth (pP-P method)
Extra travel time as
Depth (Hypocenter or Focal Depth)
(pP-P method)
Extra travel time as
(pP – P)=2Z/V
(pP – P)=2Z/V
(pP – P)V
(pP – P)V
2
=Z
where (pP – P) is the
travel time difference,
Z is depth of
hypocenter, and V is
the average P wave
velocity above the
source.
http://www.seismosoc.org/publications/SRL/SRL_70/srl_70-4_eq.html
19
How big was it?
Measuring Size of Earthquake?
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/asia/philippines/9125138/Philippines-hit-by-5.2-magnitude-earthquake.html
Magnitude
2
=Z
where (pP – P) is the
travel time difference,
Z is depth of
hypocenter, and V is
the average P wave
velocity above the
source.
Maximum Amplitude of
Ground Shaking Determines
Richter Magnitude
20
Magnitude of this Earthquake?
21
Richter Magnitude
22
S — P = 26 sec
Amplitude = 23mm
Magnitude = 5
http://siovizcenter.ucsd.edu/library/TLTC/TLTCmag.htm
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology
Magnitude
23
!24
•Each
whole number increase represents a ten times
(10x) increase in the amplitude of the ground motion
recorded by a seismometer

a magnitude 5 earthquake would result in ten times
the level of ground shaking as a magnitude 4
earthquake (and 32 times as much energy would be
released).
http://www.geo.mtu.edu/UPSeis/intensity.html
Incorporated Research Institutions for Seismology

Evolution of Earthquake
Magnitude
25
Evolution of Earthquake
Magnitude
Body Wave Magnitude
Body Wave Magnitude
Surface Wave Magnitude
Surface Wave Magnitude
Moment Magnitude
Mw = 2/3 log10(MO) – 10.7
Moment Magnitude
Mw = 2/3 log10(MO) – 10.7
Moment = µ A D
Moment = µ A D
µ = shear modulus = 32 GPa in crust, 75 GPa
in mantle
A = LW = area
D = average displacement during rupture
µ = shear modulus = 32 GPa in crust, 75 GPa
in mantle
A = LW = area
D = average displacement during rupture
!27
Energy and Moment Magnitude
Search on USGS magnitude calculator
26
Activity #4 Summary
28
• Used seismic wave arrival travel time curves
• How are earthquakes located?
• Location = Epicenter (S-P Method) + Depth (pP-P Method)
• Magnitude (Nomogram method)
• Evolution of magnitude
• Seismic moment
• Moment magnitude
Seismic Wave Behavior—Effect on Buildings
Background to accompany the animations & videos on: IRIS’ Animations
Introduction
Seismic waves travel either through the Earth’s
interior or near Earth’s surface with a characteristic
speed and style of motion. There are four basic types
of seismic waves; two preliminary body waves (P &
S) that travel through the Earth’s interior (Figures 1 &
2) and two slower surface waves (Love and Rayleigh)
that travel along the surface of the Earth (Figure 3).
Their speeds vary depending on the density and the
elastic properties of the material they pass through,
and they are amplified as they reach the surface. At
great distances, the motion is detected by sensitive
seismograph stations.
In our animations, we
exaggerate the motion
surface
waves
of the seismic waves by
bouncing a building
to show what sensitive
instruments record as
seismic waves arrive at
the station.
In the animations we
look at single paths for
each wave, but recognize that the seismic waves travel away
from the earthquake or explosion in all directions at once.
dy
bo ves
wa
An earthquake generates a series of waves that
penetrate the Earth and, depending on magnitude,
can be detected by sensitive instruments thousands of
miles from the epicenter. The motion of the ground
tells us what type of seismic wave arrived. Though
we animate individual wave paths, remember that like
sound waves, seismic waves travel in all directions
away from the source. We also greatly exaggerate the
motion to illustrate the behavior.
Link to Vocabulary (Page 3)
Depending on proximity to the focus of the
earthquake the seismic waves move the ground, thus
any structure according to their wave motion. The
different types of seismic-energy waves shake the
ground in different ways. Combinations of waves,
as well as reflections and refractions off boundaries
within the earth produce many other types of seismic
waves, but they can be left to seismologists
The P wave, or primary wave, is the fastest of the
three waves and the first detected by seismographs.
They are able to move through both solid rock as
well as through liquids. These are compressional or
longitudinal waves that oscillate the ground back
and forth along the direction of wave travel, in much
the same way that sound waves (which are also
compressional) move air back and forth as the waves
travel from the sound source to a sound receiver.
Compressional waves compress and expand matter as
they move through it (Figure 2). Figure 1A shows that
when a seismic wave comes from below, it bumps the
house upward.
Information in this document is from usgs.gov and nasa.gov
Figure 1: House Shake Motion
A: P waves, or compressional waves, are seismic body waves that
shake the ground back and forth in the direction that the wave
is moving. P waves travel fastest and are generally felt first. They
usually cause very little damage.
B: S, or secondary waves or shear waves, are seismic body waves that
shake the ground back and forth perpendicular to the direction
the wave is moving.
C: Surface waves (not shown in the house images) roll the ground in a
back-and-forth, up- and-down motion.
[Figure from REV: http://rev.seis.sc.edu/definition.html]
S waves, or secondary waves, are the waves
directly following the P waves. S waves travel
in the same direction, but instead of being a
compressive wave, they oscillate with a shearing
behavior at right angles to the direction of motion.
Figure 1B shows that though the wave direction is
the same as the P wave, the ground motion moves
the house side to side. They travel about 1.7 times
slower than P waves. Because liquids will not
sustain shear stresses, S waves will not travel
through liquids like water, molten rock, or the
Earth’s outer core. S waves are more dangerous
than P waves because they have greater amplitude
and produce vertical and horizontal motion of the
ground surface.
For many classroom applications simply
addressing P and S waves is enough, but it is
also good to know about the destructive and
convoluted surface waves.
Figure 2—This diagram shows how, at a microscopic level, the
particles move during compressive P waves or shearing S waves.
The arrows on the right show direction of wave travel. These waves
travel in paths through the Earth.
This last type of wave, and the slowest, is the
surface wave which moves close to or on the
outside surface of the ground. There are two types
of surface waves:
1) Love waves move like S waves in that they
have a shearing motion in the direction of
travel, but the movement is back and forth
horizontally.
2) Rayleigh waves move both horizontally and
vertically in a vertical plane pointed in the
direction of travel.
Love and Rayleigh waves both produce
ground shaking at the Earth’s surface but very
little motion deep in the Earth. Because the
amplitude of surface waves diminishes less
rapidly with distance than the amplitude of P
or S waves, surface waves are often the most
important component of ground shaking far
from the earthquake source, thus can be the most
destructive.
Other animation sets in our series that complement
this set include:
1) 3-Component Seismograph
2) Multi-Station Seismograph Network
3) Travel-time Curves
Figure 3—Surface waves travel at or near the surface of the Earth
only. These can be the most destructive waves in that they appear
to roll along lifting and dropping the ground as they pass.
Vocabulary
Amplitude—the maximum disturbance or distance from the constant point. The amplitude of a seismic wave
is the amount the ground moves as the wave passes by. (As an illustration, the amplitude of an ocean
wave is one-half the distance between the peak and trough of the wave. The amplitude of a seismic
wave can be measured from the signal recorded on a seismogram.)
Asthenosphere —layer of the Earth found 100-500 km below the Earth’s surface that yields to persistent
stresses more than the rigid crust or the core. Click here to see an image
Body Waves—waves that move within the Earth’s interior or within a body of rock.
Compression—fractional decrease of volume due to pressure.
Earthquake—shaking or trembling of the earth that accompanies rock movements extending anywhere from
the crust to 680 km below the Earth’s surface. It is the release of stored elastic energy caused by
sudden fracture and movement of rocks inside the Earth. Part of the energy released produces seismic waves, like P, S, and surface waves, that travel outward in all directions from the point of initial
rupture. These waves shake the ground as they pass by. An earthquake is felt if the shaking is strong
enough to cause ground accelerations exceeding approximately 1.0 centimeter/second squared.
Elastic Properties—the measure of an objects ability to change shape when a force is applied to it, and return
to its original shape when the force on it is released.
Epicenter—the point on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake.
Fault—a fracture or zone of fractures in rock along which the two sides have been displaced relative to each
other .
Lithosphere—solid, rocky, outer part of the Earth, approximately 50 miles thick, comprised of the crust and
the solid portion of the mantle.
Love Waves—surface waves that move parallel to the Earth’s surface and perpendicular to the direction of
wave propagation..
Magnitude—greatness or extent of size.
Mantle—the layer in Earth’s interior between the crust and the core. Click here to see an image
P Wave—the primary body wave; the first seismic wave detected by seismographs; able to move through both
liquid and solid rock; compressional waves, like sound waves, which compress and expand matter as
they move through it.
Rayleigh Waves—surface waves that move in an elliptical motion, producing both a vertical and horizontal
component of motion in the direction of wave propagation.
Seismicity—relative frequency and distribution of earthquakes.
Seismic wave— A vibrational disturbance in the Earth that travels at speeds of several kilometers per second.
There are three main types of seismic waves in the earth: P (fastest), S (slower), and Surface waves
(slowest). Seismic waves are produced by earthquakes.
Seismogram—real-time record, made of metal tape, of seismic waves.
Seismograph—an instrument used to record seismic waves. Click here to see an animation
Seismology—science that deals with earthquakes and attendant phenomenon including the study of artificially
produced elastic waves in the Earth’s material.
Shear—a type of strain in which the shape of a material is displaced laterally with no corresponding change in
volume. Click here to learn more!
Surface Wave—waves that move close to or on the outside surface of the Earth. These are slower than P or
S waves, that propagate along the Earth’s surface rather than through the deep interior. Two principal
types of surface waves, Love and Rayleigh waves, are generated during an earthquakes. Rayleigh
waves cause both vertical and horizontal ground motion, and Love waves cause horizontal motion
only.
S Waves—secondary body waves that shear, or cut the rock they travel through sideways at right angles to the
direction of motion; cannot travel through liquid; produce vertical and horizontal motion in the ground
surface.
Wave—a disturbance that moves through a system.
Wavelength—the distance over which a wave pattern repeats
Activity #1
1
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu/gen_eq_info.html
Recap – Components of Stress 3
Normal Stress
• perpendicular to
surface
Shear Stress
• parallel to surface
Activity #2
Compressional Waves
“P Waves”
2
ShearWaves
“S Waves”
Daniel A. Russell, http://www.acs.psu.edu/drussell/demos/waves/wavemotion.html
Learning Group Postings
4
• Post two multiple-choice questions, each with 5 potential answers
(a, b, c, d, and e) on the material covered in this activity;
• Scoring based on the clarity (writing ability) and quality
(scientific accuracy) – Be clear and precise.
• No repeating of a question by another student in your learning
group, which will consist of 6-9 students (look at posts before you).
• Next, provide feedback, clarity and quality of the questions
posted of the student immediately above their own posting and
then answer the questions.
• After your questions have been answered, provide the feedback
on the accuracy of the answers.
Geology 112 – Earthquakes
5
Objective
6
Activity #3 Objective: Outcome #1
Measuring an Earthquake
Outline
7
• Seismic Wave Properties (cont.)
• Velocities of Seismic Waves
• Surface Waves
• Wave Characteristics/Properties
• Measuring Earthquakes
• Traveltime Curves
• Next Time – Learning Outcome #3 –
Use Traveltime Curves to Locate
Earthquakes and Determine Magnitude
Body Wave Velocity
Velocity propagation of disturbance, displacement or energy
Compressional Waves
“P Waves”
8
ShearWaves
“S Waves”
• Velocity is a function of material properties (elastic moduli)
• Shear modulus and Modulus of incompressibility (more rigid=faster)
• P wave velocity is approx. 1.7 times S wave velocity
• S wave velocity is about 60% of P wave velocity
Seismic Waves
9
http://www.seismolab.caltech.edu/gen_eq_info.html
10
http://www.tjhsst.edu/~jlafever/wanimate/Wave_Properties2.html
11
Surface Waves => Rayleigh Waves
Daniel A. Russell, Graduate Program in Acoustics,
The Pennsylvania State University
http …
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