Tips of writing the best Dissertation project
Writing dissertation can be very stressing and time consuming especially in your first time. To writer a good dissertation, you must be conversant with your topic, make sure sure you do thourogh research in order to better understand your topic. Next, you should ensure you have a clear outline, one that you need to follow to complete your thesis. Many students have come to our platform to seek help in various chapters like chapter 4 which is always very demanding especially when your thesis is quantative. This you are required to have raw dataset, which you must analayse with various statistical softwares such as SPSS, MPLUS, MAPPLE etc which in many times gives most of Masters and PHD Clients hardtime. Blade research handles all this for you and give you full thesis. We handle long thesis even huge project of upto 500 pages. Our writer once assigned, will work with you closely, chapter by chapter as you submit to your instructor. Incase of any feedback, our writers are always standby to fix any issue. Revision is unlimited, and we only relax once you are fully satisfied by the final products.
Below is just an overview, of how a thesis should be arranged and formated. However, each instructor will have their own structure. You are adviced once you make an order with us to ensure you attach to your writer your outline as well as any dataset if available to ensure smooth flow of the process of completing your project.
The Dissertation outline structure Explained
Instructions: Double Underline means the item should be a title or heading in your dissertation.
Do not deviate from the order of headings unless explicitly directed to do so by your dissertation
chair. Do not limit the dissertation to these headings, however. Dissertation resources are listed
on the last page of this document.
Chapter I: INTRODUCTION
The introduction describes the research problem or research question and lays out the
reasoning behind it. This reasoning is sometimes called a theoretical argument. It justifies
the study, in terms of a need for the information it will provide, in order to develop or test a
theory or to understand, explain, or further describe an educational phenomenon. Refer to
the APA manual for additional information about the introduction.
- General description of the areas of concern – set the stage (3-4 paragraphs).
- Significance of the Problem
a. Include explicit statement of significance specific to the topic studied.
b. Why is it important to conduct the study?
c. This section will probably not be very long but it should be very powerful!
d. What theoretical/practical reasons are there for wanting to know the answers to
the research questions?
- Analyze the Theoretical Basis for the Study
a. The organization of the variables that will be considered to answer the research
questions likely will have a theoretical basis. Explicate how the most appropriate
theoretical perspective helps conceptualize the study. Competing theoretical
perspectives should be analyzed in Chapter 2 Literature Review.
b. Include theoretical definitions of important terms and all constructs (should not
include operational definitions that will appear in the methods section).
- Synthesize and Critically Analyze the “Very Relevant Literature”
a. Make the argument for the dissertation using the “studies in the existing literature
that incorporate all the major variables or constructs that are present in the
proposed study” (Rudestam & Newton, 2001, p. 63). Figure 4.1 (Rudestam &
Newton, 2001, p. 64) provides a visual conceptualization of relevance of literature.
b. This may require examining the intersection of only a subset of variables and
repeating the process with another subset of variables because the literature does
not have all variables incorporated in extant research.
- Problem Statement
a. State the purpose of the research explicitly and succinctly.
b. The introduction should lead up to and provide support for the problem statement.
- Research Questions and Hypotheses
a. Ordinarily the researcher will have a few research questions, with a number of
hypotheses for each.
b. Do not operationalize variables in this section. Use theoretical questions and
hypotheses written in the language of constructs.
c. A research question should (a) be in the form of a question, (b) suggest a
relationship among constructs, and (c) be empirically testable.
d. Hypotheses are declarative statements written in the expected or predicted
direction (usually an alternate hypothesis). Such hypotheses are called research,
scientific, or theoretical hypotheses and are written in the present tense.
e. Example adapted from Rudestam & Newton (2001, pp. 67-68).
i. Research Question: How do adolescents with dyslexia cope with the
effects of their learning disabilities?
ii. Hypothesis 1: Adolescents with dyslexia who accept the diagnosis of
having a learning disability use more problem-focused coping strategies
than adolescents with dyslexia who reject or deny the diagnosis.
iii. Hypothesis 2: Adolescents with dyslexia who accept the diagnosis of
having a learning disability rely more on social support than adolescents
with dyslexia who reject or deny the diagnosis.
iv. Hypothesis 3: Adolescents with dyslexia who reject or deny the diagnosis
of having a learning disability use more avoidant coping strategies than
adolescents with dyslexia who accept the diagnosis.
v. Note how hypothesis 2 and 3 are worded so that the coping strategy
hypothesized matches the specific group. Also note that terms are not
Chapter II: LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter reviews what has already been written in the field on the topic of the research.
The literature cited should support the theoretical argument being made and demonstrate
that the author has a grasp of the major ideas and findings that pertain to his or her topic.
Refer to APA manual for additional information concerning literature reviews.
- Historical Background
a. Put things in perspective. This is more than just a chronology and does not
necessarily have to include every detail since day one.
b. What are the major issues, controversies, etc. that impact your study. Include
background on all relevant variables.
- Theory Relevant to Research Questions/Hypotheses.
a. What theoretical models/perspectives inform your research?
b. Compare and contrast competing theories and justify the theoretical foundation of
c. Describe how the theoretical foundation of the dissertation applies to the problem.
- Current Empirical Literature Relevant to Research Questions/Hypotheses
a. Include in this section:
i. literature relating to individual variables
ii. literature relating to specific combination of variables (specifically
examine background and relevant background literature as shown in
Figure 4.1) relevant to the dissertation
b. This should be more than a listing of studies. What common thread holds them
together? Use transitions to effectively tie one section with another.
c. Incorporate discussion of strengths/weaknesses of methodology in previous
studies and which you are building on/hoping to avoid/improve upon in your
- Use headings and subheadings liberally to organize this section. Consider making a
“concept map” of relevant literature for organizational purposes (do not include in the
dissertation text, however). This section should be reflective of deductive reasoning;
starting broadly and narrowing the focus as the chapter progresses.
Chapter III. METHOD
The method chapter should give sufficient detail about the methodology used that the study
could be replicated. Sections in a Method chapter often include, but are not limited to, the
following: participants, instruments, materials, procedure, and analysis. Refer to APA
manual for additional information concerning methods sections.
a. Human subject’s consideration and clearance from IRB (IRB is submitted after
the proposal and documented as passed in the final document).
b. Describe subjects in enough detail so the reader can visualize the subjects.
Important characteristics should be delineated (often not available until after data
collection, these data should be presented here rather than in the results section).
c. Describe methods for sample selection in detail. For example if a sample of
convenience is used, this should be explicitly stated. Specific inclusion and
exclusion criteria should be noted in this section.
d. Conduct and report a power analysis to determine the sample size for the proposal.
Keep these findings in the final document and provide an explanation if there are
meaningfully more or less subjects in the final analyses.
e. If there was attrition, state the number of subjects who dropped out (or with
unusable data), the reasons for attrition, and information about the dropouts.
f. Discuss handling of missing data.
g. If a survey is used report the rate of return in this section.
a. If an unpublished instrument or new measurement technique is used, describe it in
detail. Include copies of all unpublished instruments in the appendices. It is likely
reliability and validity analyses will need to be part of the dissertation when
unpublished instruments are used.
b. Published instruments or techniques that have been used before should be
referenced with appropriate citations.
c. For all measures, evidence of reliability and validity should be stated explicitly. If
this information is not available from prior studies, piloting of the
instrument/procedures should be conducted. For all instruments, the researcher
should include reliability information specific to the study sample (Thompson,
d. Organize this section in terms of constructs measured. For measures that include
several constructs be clear in describing the measure which constructs are
assessed and provide specific reliability and validity data for the subscale.
- Research Design
a. Include general description of the research design in accepted terminology (e.g.,
Cook & Campbell, 1979; Kirk, 1982). Include possible threats to internal and
external validity of the chosen design.
b. List independent and dependent variables and their operational definitions.
c. It is often useful to include a diagram/figure of the design.
a. Procedures should be described in sufficient detail, that a reader could replicate
the study if so desired.
b. If a survey is used, the method of collecting data, the rate of return, and
description of the procedures used in follow up and a description of the nonresponders should be provided.
c. Copies of materials used in intervention, etc. should be included in an appendix.
- Data Analysis
a. Restate each research question and hypothesis.
b. Each hypothesis should be followed by choice of statistical analysis to address
c. Include brief description, the assumptions regarding the statistical analysis that
will be tested, and rationale for each statistical technique chosen.
d. State alpha levels to be used to determine statistical significance.
- Chapter IV. RESULTS
This chapter presents the results of the analyses, usually in order by research question, and
any results of further analyses (that is, analyses that were not proposed but which were
carried out). Results should be presented without interpretation; interpretation is reserved for
the discussion in chapter V. Refer to APA manual for additional information concerning
- Order of Presentation for Nomothetic Studies
a. Descriptive Statistics (includes means, standard deviations, frequencies, etc. for
all variables in the study)
b. Preliminary Statistical Analyses (correlation matrices, etc.)
c. Statistical analyses to answer research questions/hypotheses.
d. Note: for single-subject, small n, and qualitative studies develop the order of
presentation with the dissertation chair.
- Statistical Analyses to Answer Research Questions/Hypotheses
a. Use questions/hypotheses as an outline to organize results.
b. Each question/hypothesis should be restated followed by the results of the tests of
assumptions and then by the data analyses which provide answers to that
c. Report statistical power of the test and effect sizes.
- Organize Data into Tables and Figures
a. Each Table or Figure must be referenced in the text.
b. Tables and Figures should include complete information so that they can be
understood without reference to the text.
c. Place tables and figures as soon after their first mention in the text as is possible.
Chapter V. DISCUSSION
Results are interpreted in light of the research questions and discussed in conjunction with
other literature. Limitations of interpretation and implications for further research may be
presented. Refer to APA manual for additional information concerning methods sections.
a. Summarize results briefly.
b. Discuss results in non-statistical terms. Answer the research question and
a. Organize this section with headings
b. Explicitly discuss the implications of the results. Integrate your results with the
theoretical background and very relevant literature findings.
c. Relate to literature review – point out (a) consistencies and (b) inconsistencies
with results of those studies reported in the literature cited.
d. Did findings provide support or differ from extant theoretical positions.
e. It is appropriate to speculate on the meaning of the results as long as it is
made explicit that that is what the writer is doing.
a. A limitation is a weakness or handicap that potentially limits the internal or
external validity of the results, such as using a sample with a particular
characteristic such as all males. Most limitations should have been considered
when the study was conceptualized. Therefore, limitations in this section are those
that were largely outside the control of the researcher.
b. Often limitations include a statement of the generalizability of the results, controls
that may be impossible to meet, etc. For example, if you must use intact groups
rather than random assignment, how might this affect the interpretation of your
- Recommendations for Future Research
a. Provide specific guidance based on the dissertation finds and they relate to the
extant theoretical and empirical base.
b. Why is the proposed research needed and what form should it take.