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Abstract

Human Animal interaction is a wider concept then it sounds. There are many behavioural aspects that can be learned from animals or which are shaped in the presence of animals like Patience, caring and protecting behaviour towards others, loving others before self. Animals presence help out in coping with many unfavourable situations like low mood or bad mood, low self-esteem panic situations. Corona Virus disease made many changes in animals’ as well as human behaviours.

Studies conducted on different issues related to animals and human behaviour and factors causes them, explored different aspects of the interactions of Human and animals.

Introduction

1.1 Introduction

Human behaviour is a continuous process of development and has been an issue for debate to psychologists that how much of behaviour is influenced by heredity factors and how much by environmental factors. Today most of the psychologists believe that behaviour is an interaction of heredity and environmental factors [1] consequently, Human behaviour is influenced by a large number of elements and results into varied reactions and responses towards atmosphere and other living and non-living beings. Human behaviour plays an important role in sustainability and effective co-existence of diversity of species. Evidences are found since prehistoric times about the co-existence of animals and humans within the same living society or same area without much distinct boundaries. But nowadays it seems difficult to carry on this culture of co-existence of different species on same energy, attachment, and affection humans shared earlier. Earlier men used to be more pro environmentalists then today, reason behind this change could be the busy life schedules and more concerns about hygienic and germs protection. These behavioural and attitude patterns for different animals can be tried to explain with the living standards and images one owns in terms of society. Nowadays people use to buy and arrange everything they wish to keep around them instead of improving the standard of free existing things and beings. Current scenario of less interaction involvement with surroundings and other living beings is also a cause of lesser involvement with environmental and so with the nature. There could be many possible reasons for this lesser interactions such as less free time to invest and experience the diversity, lesser interest in exploring things, fear of getting hurt from animals or getting infections from them [2].

1.2 Need for Study

Here in this study we will discuss what are the components that influence human behaviour towards animals and if there is any difference noticed in human animal interaction and relation before and during covid-19 if yes then what could be the most probable causes for differences in human animal interaction. If this is related to a particular age group or economic group or influenced by the locality of living. We will discuss in details about many aspects which can affect Human animal interaction, with their origins and causes.

Literature of Review

2.1 Description

Human Animal interaction has always an important role in social, emotional, and cognitive aspect in human of all ages. Encouragement regarding more involvement in animal care (pets and strays) will lead to improving attachment and knowledge about animals consequently which lead to better prediction of animal and human behaviour. Animals can be provided with the appropriate care giver badge, as animals has been proved to possess and show their care giving and protecting behaviour. Behavioural development is a continuous process thus starts at early stage of one’s life.

Many life skills and characteristics become part of behaviour by regular practicing them like patience of learning something new, nurturing other living beings, moral values about what is right and what is not right, positive attitude and attitudes like empathy, compassion and better social interactions. People have cited that their companionship with animals in all forms which include their pets as well as strays they found on streets and outside their houses have altered their low self -esteem, low mood and loneliness and provided them with social support[3] and patience to deal with many obstacles they face in life. In recent time of Covid-19 when Full and partial lockdown was announced by the governments by the all most all the countries of the world to prevent the spread of novel corona virus. People had to stay wherever they were for months and follow the isolation norms for their as well as the betterment of people around them. In such situations when people could not reach out each other and had stay within the same environment of their home or accommodations, it became very usual and people found that difficult to deal with. In those times it was a rough experience to almost everybody. At some point of time everyone was in need of some social and emotional support. Animals were the most easily available source of interaction for support and change of usual pattern that everybody followed. To analyse the impact of animal interaction with human many studies have been conducted so far and many more are being in the process of evaluation. Many studies are used in this review which include different studies conducted on different age groups including children of age 6-12 years and adults of minimum age of 18 years etc.

Variable One- Animals’ presence affect Attachment and affection.

Variable Two- how Human’s presence affects animals

Variable Theories- Interaction affects the bonds. Human Animal Interaction also has some positive and some negative impacts on both the sides namely Humans as well as Animals. Animals’ presence is likely to have more positively effects on humans then Human’s presence on Animals. Animals have been found as a source of comfort and affection

Research Framework

To conduct this research, the interaction issues facing by Human and Animals during the covid-19 times was opted. The reason behind the choice of topic was to explore more about the Human-Animals as due to Covid-19 interactions with other beings was greatly affected because of the concerns of spread of Corona Virus and Lockdown implemented b government to prevent the spread of virus.

This topic was chosen after being inspired with the surroundings to diagnose more about the impact of animals’ presence on humans and impacts of presence of human contact on animals.

Information was collected from people who have adopted pets and who wish to adopt and people who feed strays, research papers available on internet, text materials available in books and articles.

Important and relevant information was tried to draw from those data sources.

From the collected data Conclusion was made and Drawn Information was arranged in a manner of ascending complexity.

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Proper order of references was kept in record to use in later part of this review articles.

Aim: To explore the impacts of Human-Animal Interaction on Animals and humans individually.

Review Objective: The objective of this research is to know more about the effects of Human-Animal Interaction on Humans and Animals relations in times of Covid-19 and the cause of those particular effects.

Review Method: data was collected from several research papers, articles, and books.

Studies that support and Cite Human-Animal Interaction

Study 1 conducted on 1217 primary school children of age 07-12 years in Scotland. Majority of children had pets around 67%. The data collected from them included about pet ownership, family affluence, attachment to pets, attitude towards pets, compassion towards animals,

Outcomes: When data was analysed it was found that majority of children displayed high attachment to their pets. 83% or children reported their pets make them happy, the findings support the significance of pets and that pets provide a source of comfort and affection. [4]

Study 2 A 10 min survey was designed which included 21 questions in four parts namely; (1) residence and cats information, (2) change in cats care behaviour and health during pandemic, (3) difficultiesadvantages of having cats during pandemic, (4) the owner and the household. This survey aimed at cat owners in any country. The survey was completed by 325 participants from 25 different countries. Most of the respondents had cats with mixed breed (not sure about breed).

Outcomes: Majority of people didn’t notice any change in behaviour of cats during pandemic. But 33% or respondents noticed changes in cats behaviour of their cats during pandemic. These changes were positive changes like more playful and calm[5]. This could be due to the presence of their owner and more people in the house.

Study 3 The survey was conducted on 100 people in many states of India like Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh and other states in 2020 when covid-19 lockdown was implemented. The Survey targeted both urban and rural people and included questions regarding behavioural changes in their pets, availability of veterinary clinic and animal abuse in their region for both pets and strays. The survey also conducted descriptive questions for the similar issues.

Outcomes: Survey found different results for pets and strays. For pets, 89.1% of people felt that the presence of pets has calming effect on their owner. The aggressive behaviour was mainly due to no outing and space. Majority of people didn’t find any difficulty in taking care of their pets. Some reported difficulties like walking outside and bearing the expenses of their pets in lockdown situations.

For strays, it was evident that lockdown caused absence of human and consequently lack of food and other necessities like medications etc. [6]

Discussion:

Through the studies cited above it is found that Pet animals help their owners in many aspects and situations. There are not much differences in Interaction relationship between Humans and Pet Animals while a difference in situation of stray animals can be found as they are getting lesser concern and care from people as expected and as they were receiving before covid-19 times. There are many reasons behind these outcomes like spending more time with animals strengthen the existing bond between pets and owners on the other half covid-19 virus made situation worse for strays as people were isolated and quarantined so there was a lack of food and other necessary stuff they were getting before the pandemic. The major reason behind this was fear of getting infections from strays, unhygienic condition of strays as most the people were not coming out for their regular care routine and reducing the expenses used to done on stray animals’ care.

Conclusion

Animals help human in learning many useful aspects of daily life behaviour and routine like patience, helping out others, social support etc. Many research conducted on animal human interactions shows different results mostly positive for pets like they make their owner happy, and their owner loves them. But it is also found that situation is not similar with strays. For pets mostly things were as same as during covid-19 and before covid-19, but for stray animals’ situations were worse during covid-19 in terms of food availability, care they were receiving like medications reduced to noticeable extent

References

  1. Developmental psychology, Ignou. block-1. P.06-07
  2. https:doi.org10.7717peerj.7328
  3. https:journals.plos.orgplosonearticle?id=10.1371journal.pone.0239397
  4. https:www.mdpi.com1660-4601145490
  5. https:journals.plos.orgplosonearticle?id=10.1371journal.pone.0257671
  6. https:www.vpmthane.orgBNBJBNBjbnbSpecialIssue2021JBNB21_1.pdf

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