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Health and Physical Education is an important subject for senior secondary students to assist in developing both physical and mental skills. Health and Physical Education provides a platform for students to increase awareness and skills in fitness levels, social interactions, cooperation abilities, vocabulary, self-esteem, spatial and movement knowledge. Through an exploration of three various YouTube videos, focusing on senior secondary students engaged in health and physical education, this analysis will explore the various structures, strategies and teaching models a lesson can be formed upon and evaluate its implementation. Acknowledging the necessary presence for ICT in education, the importance of behavioural management strategies, guided discussions, student-to-peer activity and valuing communication. Each video’s exploration presents an understanding of elements involved in managing and guiding senior secondary students engaged in health and physical education.

Video three presents a ‘Purpose Driven PE Lesson [by] Kyle Redshaw’. This lesson incorporates games and sports (GS) through ACARA’s ‘devise, implement and refine strategies demonstrating leadership and collaboration skills when working in groups or teams (ACPMP105 – Scootle )’. Whilst focusing on emphasising class management as the student’s learning goal, Redshaw has implemented play-teach-play as one of his strategies (Graham, G., Elliott, E. and Palmer, S. 2016.) The goal of the play-teach-play learning design is to help create educational settings and sessions that are learner and activity centred. Ensuring an essence of both physical and theoretical learning. Further, theming this specific lesson with pop culture reference to Star Wars, enveloped throughout the activities including the music, movement and equipment. This strategy proves to engage the students effectively and provide a platform for the physical activities labelled ‘Jedi Knight Training’. The presence of ICT in education in the form of visual stimuli via projector, screen, websites, and videos are also evident throughout this lesson. Involving a large aspect of ICT in Education, ‘promotes higher levels of student engagement and learning results’ (Tinio, V.L.2003). The learning outcomes include development of self-responsibility, fitness management, teamwork, leadership skills, communication and personal fitness levels.

Video three begins introduction with an essence of reflective practice, engaging the students in discussion and building upon prior knowledge to introduce something new, as explored in Marzano’s Dimensions of Learning (2011). The use of a collaborative class activity (with sticky notes) engages all students to participate together to develop ideas and team working skills in identifying areas of activities their knowledge lacks (Class Management). A warm up is then followed by another discussion using a teaching method of experiential and debrief tools. Student-to-peer activities are then engaged, as explored in Moss’s four stages of inquiry structuring (Heik, T. 2019), this builds upon individual’s abilities to cooperate, communicate, compete and form appropriate relationships. Allocated time for students to collaborate on assignments is finally presented. This method uses formative feedback and ICT. Redshaw uses measuring students’ abilities to cooperate in activities, guided discussions, opportunities for students to identify key class management ideas as well as formative word processing as assessments.

Incorporating activities that can include more than two students at a time would prove quite beneficial to ensure the learning outcomes of ‘demonstrate teamwork and leadership skills’ are explored more thoroughly in video three. The use of group work allows students to use and build on their social skills, reasoning and choice making skills as explained in ‘Teaching Children and Adolescents Physical Education’ by Graham, G., Elliott, E. and Palmer, S. (2016). The assessment of learning could be improved by implementing a physical in class assessment. Introducing a challenging activity where teams could respectfully compete. An idea could include using a blindfolded obstacle course to assist focus on teamwork, relationship building and communication. This activity can still form under the Star Wars theme strategy, yet further enhances the learning outcomes. The use of ICT presently implemented, can also be guided by the teacher by providing students with more online tools such as complimentary interactive or informative websites to engage with and prepare them for their formative assignments. A PowerPoint presentation, providing visual information and key ideas, explored as a class by developing relevant mind maps or discussions about each slide would ensure those learners who don’t identify as auditory or kinaesthetic (Hoerner, N. 2013), apprehend the knowledge being taught (accessible via appendix 1 and 2).

The fourth video ‘One Wall Handball: How to Play in High School’, presents a beginning lesson of how to play handball by Bryan from the University of Louisiana at Lafayette. This lesson explores games and sports (GS) and lifelong physical activities (LLPA). Focusing on developing students’ skills and abilities to refine coordination, physical endurance, vocabulary, speed, form, reflexes, and competitiveness. In accordance with the Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority, this lesson stems from ‘Learning Through Movement’. The Australian Curriculum outcomes, emphasising the ability to ‘transfer understanding from previous movement experiences to create solutions to movement challenges (ACPMP106 – Scootle )’. Through this platform, students learn to apply more specialised movement skills and complex movement strategies and concepts in different movement environments. Bryan’s models for engagement involves a solidified use of demonstrations, partner work and teamwork. Along with use of teacher-to-student (Heik, T. 2019), encouragement, correction and guidance. This lesson is inclusive of all students, catering for various levels of student abilities and possible injuries.

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As presented at 22:40 and 39:00 minutes, Bryan provides differentiation in altering the activities to suit the student’s needs. Thus ensuring all students meet the learning outcomes. The ‘Rubber band intervention’ presumably resourced from Dr Edward Hallowell’s behaviour-management strategy (2015), presents as a major strategy used in this video. An ideal way to engage all students in being aware of their participation, attitudes and behaviour. The sequence of activities in video four begin with an appropriate introduction for students, reflecting on knowledge and introducing the activities and rules. Followed by a warm up of strength, muscle building, student-to-student work, stamina building and a variation of an obstacle course. The warm up is to ensure safety in physical activity as expressed by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Demonstrations of activities and movements are presented throughout by the teacher, guiding the students through a series of specific handball moves and strategies. Bryan introduces students to the appropriate terminology for each variation as a way to develop the vocabulary use of the class. Following a group discussion, the learnings of the lesson are assessed through a successful game of handball, examining their appropriate follow and use of rules, strategies, movements and teamwork. Concluding the video with a collection of rubber bands to solidify the behaviour management strategy.

Whilst Bryan demonstrates a fantastic way to teach movement through partner work, improvements could be made in swapping over partners at intervals to ensure students are engaging in their social and communicative skills also. When the warm up course was introduced, students advanced to stations with their closer peers. Resulting in big groups of students and not all stations being covered. This could have been avoided with direct approach to planning how many students per station prior to beginning the activity. Instruction could then be voiced to form groups of 5 at each station or the teacher could indicate each student to a different exercise until all stations are full. Towards the conclusion of the lesson, students appear distracted from instruction. It would be beneficial to discuss with them what information and skills they gained from this lesson to ensure they stay grounded to the learning outcomes and if possible explain how this lesson will tie in with the next. An option could include a game of off-wall handball.

Video five, ‘Secondary Lesson Plan’ by Mr Mohlis, presents his class through games and sports (GS) and health benefits of physical activity (HBPA). Whilst this video’s content is small, there are recognizable strategies and activities implemented. Mohlis’s strategies invoked significant inclusion of all students, repetitiveness of methods and movement, and explanations for instruction. Video five can be perceived as reflecting on ‘how fair play and ethical behaviour can influence the outcomes of movement activities (ACPMP107 – Scootle)’. Following a recognisable sequence of an introduction, warm up, main activity and conclusion, Mohlis uses various challenges to engage his students and encourage participation. The main activity, combination soccer and basketball game, provokes competitiveness, athletic ability and team cooperation. He uses differentiation in swapping a couple players over and their positions. This also allows for injured peers to participate safely without strain. Learning outcomes for this activity include a development of teamwork, skills in passing, kicking, shooting, aiming and following the ball. Along with an apprehension of game rules, tricks, strategies and movements that do and don’t work to secure the ball. Mohlis all the while, explains correct and safe methods to perform movements such as kicking the ball, guiding the cohort in a manner of physical awareness that can reflect of the students’ own thinking. Video five finishes with a conclusive discussion, engaging students to reflect on the lesson’s outcomes and the effectiveness of activities. The assessment strategies viewed in this video include measuring individual team engagement, ability to attempt various positions (goalie, kicker or shooter) and how well the student works with different peers.

Improvements could be made via personal teaching models, providing an increase in individualised attention to skill and abilities of each student. Such as by correcting unsafe or off forms and movements along with confidently demonstrating the correct movement. A slight lack of solid communication was evident as it also reflected in the lesson’s non-solidified assessment. As explored in ‘Teaching Children and Adolescents Physical Education’ by Graham, G., Elliott, E. and Palmer, S. (2016), demonstrations are a necessary part of teaching physical education. Informational instruction involves explaining how to safely kick a ball, jump and catch and land without putting unreasonable stress on joints, preventing potential injuries. ‘Generally, the first demonstration should be of the entire movement or task’ (Graham, G. 2016). Including these instructions and demonstrations would benefit the students in being aware of their skeletal forms and developing a greater sense of bodily and spatial awareness. Whilst the opportunity to assess each student’s participation and ability is present in the main activity of the combination soccer and basketball game. It’s full potential was not rectified. A slight change of revolving each group and allowing students to intermingle with other peers and work with different people would significantly increase the effectiveness of the activity. In regards to the short warm up presented, the National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE) recognizes the importance of a general warm-up, and recommends five to ten minutes of a cardiovascular warm-up activity followed by static stretching (NASPE, 2014). In reflection, extending the length of time allocated to warming up before the activity would encourage proper injury prevention, stretch of muscles and ligaments prior to engaging in rigorous exercise. This lesson also has the potential to involve some visual stimuli in the form of ICT. A PowerPoint on effective teamwork building could be explored to engage the students in discussion and familiarise them with honing communicative and social skills within the class (Appendix 3).

To conclude, videos three, four and five each exhibit strong lesson structures and use of various strategies that prove to engage all students in health and physical education. Each video includes the use of the back–to-wall strategy, utilising the space for movement and ensuring all students have the opportunity to see and be seen. A solid inclusion of warm up exercises ensure the prevention of injuries in all lessons viewed along with a clear outline of main activities and learning intentions. Whilst improvements can be made to each lesson, the underlying structures for each work well in engaging the entire student cohort without excluding injured or disadvantaged students. It is evident each lesson provides opportunities for senior secondary students in health and physical education, to develop both physical and mental skills via their interactions throughout the classes between the activities allocated, their peers and their instructors.


  1. Australian Curriculum. (n.d.) Senior Secondary Curriculum. Health and Physical Education. Australian Curriculum, Assessment and Reporting Authority. Retrieved from:
  2. Graham, G., Elliott, E. and Palmer, S. (2016). Teaching Adolescents Physical Education. Fourth Edition. Human Kinetics.
  3. Hallowell, E. (2011). Dr. Edward (Ned) Hallowell on ADHD: a Ferrari in Your Brain. Retrieved from:
  4. Heik, T. (2019). 4 Phases of Enquiry-Based Learning: A guide for teachers. TeachThought.
  5. Hoerner, N. (2013). The Seven Learning Styles. Inspire Education. Retrieved from:
  6. Kenneth H. Cooper MD (2014). National Association for Sport and Physical Education (NASPE). The Cooper Institute. Retrieved from:
  7. Lavergne, C. (2012). One Wall Handball: How to Play in High School. YouTube. Retrieved from:
  8. Marzano, R.J., Pickering ,D., Arredondo ,D.E. (2011). Dimensions of Learning Teachers Manual. 2nd Edition. Association for Supervision & Curriculum Development. Retrieved from:
  9. MrMohlis1. (2012). Secondary Lesson Plan. YouTube. Retrieved from:
  10. Purdie, N., Milgate, G., Bell, H.R. (2014). Two Way Teaching and Learning. Toward Culturally reflective and relevant education. ACER Press.
  11. Redshaw, K. (2013). Purpose Driven PE Lesson Kyle Redshaw. YouTube. Retrieved from:
  12. Reflective Practice. (2007). Examples of learning styles. Retrieved from:
  13. Rubber-Band’ Intervention (2015). Intervention Central. Retrieved from
  14. Sabornie, E. (2009). Managing and improving behaviour in inclusive educational environments. [Web video]. Retrieved from:
  15. Thomas, A., & Stratton, G. (2006). What are you really doing with ICT in physical education: a national audit of equipment, use, teacher attitudes, support, and training. Vol 37 No 4 pp. 627-632.
  16. Tinio, V.L. (2003). ICT in Education. Unpan. Retrieved from:

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