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Breast Cancer, as defined by Majure, breast cancer is an ‘uncontrolled growth of abnormal breast cells’ (Majure: 110). In other words, Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancerous) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body (American Cancer Society, 2016.)

Breast cancer is a disease that causes abnormal changes in the genes, which regulate the growth of cells and keep them healthy. Breast cancer can begin in the cells of the lobules, these are the milk-producing glands, or can begin in the ducts, these are the passages that drain the milk from the lobules to the nipple (Breastcancer.org, 2016).

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Breast Cancer is the most frequent malignancy in women worldwide and is curable in around 70-80% of early-stage, non-metastatic disease patients.

According to Coleman et al.,2008 that in developing countries almost 50% of all breast cancer patients and nearly 60% of deaths were occurring from 1.38 million new breast cancer cases which were diagnosed in 2008. There is a huge difference in breast cancer survival rates worldwide, with an estimated 5-year survival of 80% in developed countries to below 40% in developing countries.

This essay will draw on the role of breast cancer as a key agent in the rehabilitation of patients who suffered from this disease and help women to understand how to prevent and treat breast cancer at a young age. It will also help them to get information on different existing treatment options.

To acknowledge the function of breast cancer, it is necessary to first understand how breast cancer impacts the individual. According to the cancer society, breast cancer has several important parameters of tumor development: its size, its distribution to the surrounding tissue, whether it has spread to the lymph nodes in the breast or around it, whether it has spread to other parts of the body, such as the bones, liver or lung as well as also stimulated by the hormones. The survival rate during 5 years at four stages is on average 22percent (ACS, 2016).

Somehow, the main symptoms of breast cancer collected from Cancer Research (2014) and ACS (2016) may be:

  • Presence in one or both breasts of one or more’ hard masses’ lumps of any size, shape, texture, with smooth or non-smooth edges.
  • Inflammation (redness, swelling, increase of temperature).
  • Skin of the breast change: noticeable depressions, redness, or thickening.
  • Prolonged pain in one or both breasts, the cause of which is not clear (in many cases, breast cancer develops painlessly).
  • Nipple retraction (if before the nipple was another form).
  • Skin Redness, peeling, the appearance of sores on the nipple.
  • Bleeding or transparent fluid from the nipple, without a known reason.

For a long time, maybe swollen lymph nodes under or above the clavicle or in the armpit.

Meanwhile, there are partially or completely several different treatments that prevent the development of breast cancer. So, there are special drugs that remove the parts that develop ‘pre-cancerous changes’ and the complete removal of the breast (NCI, 2013). However, such kind of preventive treatment is recommended mainly for women with a high risk of developing breast cancer, but the conventional risk of developing treatment is avoided. After a certain age, they are only recommended to undergo regular special preventive screening – mammograms, ultrasound, MRI scan, and biopsy.

Therefore, mammography can detect breast cancer in its early stages when it may still have no symptoms but can be perfectly treated. Women who do regular mammograms have a chance of successful treatment and full recovery. In other words, regular mammogram screening can prevent the development of advanced cancer, for which recovery prognosis is much worse than in the beginning. ( La¸berg et al, 2015).

Currently, it is the main screening method for breast cancer, this survey is simple, safe, cheap, and affordable for all women. This test is taken from several X-ray images of mammary glands(breast). It was performed in a specially equipped room with a mammography machine. It is a form of an x-ray machine. Before mammography, it is needed to undress from the waist up breast are done separately. The process takes 20 minutes. (NCI, 2014).

Women who undergo screening mammography do not examine any change or those which detect breast cancer in such case doctor recommend an additional examination ultrasound and biopsy. Only with non-hazardous mammography, these changes cannot be distinguished from ‘cancer.’ For obvious reasons, to find any changes that may be a ‘tumor’ it is recommended to do the further examination on biopsies or even surgical removal of the formation to finally make sure that it is not dangerous.

Although, the exact cause of breast cancer is not known. Breast cancer disease plays a significant role in aging, genetic predisposition, female sex, and hormones however still it does not clear exactly how all these factors contribute to the growth of the tumor (Hashemi et al 20114).

The development of breast cancer r has nothing to do with the size of the breast, wearing a bra, using deodorants (antiperspirants), or abortion. Injuries of the breast (punches) also may slightly increase the likelihood of developing cancer due to scarring. Receiving oral contraceptives slightly increases the risk of breast cancer, but the risk is returning to the average level after a woman stops taking the medication. Smoking may contribute to the development of mammary gland cancer in women with long experience of heavy smoking. (Hashemi et al 2014).

Besides age, another factor that increases the likelihood of developing breast cancer is a woman’s genetic predisposition to the disease. During the research, it was found that the probability of occurrence of breast cancer among women with a genetic predisposition to the development of the disease may be more than 20% and, in some cases, increases up to 80%.

The specialized doctors improve the survival and quality of life of their patients through different treatments like surgery, radiotherapy, and systematic therapy. Such treatments kill the cancer cell or tissue which is present. After completing treatment for breast cancer, the patient may experience some long-term side effects, depending on the treatment you have received – for example, radiotherapy can increase the risk of heart disease and lung cancer and chemotherapy can cause peripheral neuropathy. These long-term effects can be managed so patients must tell their doctor or specialist nurse about any persistent or new symptoms. After such treatment of breast cancer, the doctor advised the patient should take some exercise and maintain body weight in a healthy range may also reduce the risk of recurrence (Cardoso et al. 2018 [in press]). It should be noted that they eat healthy, fit, good mood, and exercise with differing based on the patient and their condition.

To sum up, everything that has been stated so far, the main goal of scientists is to give advance, is to an understanding of the needs of patients with advanced breast cancer and intense lobbying for their rights is crucial. In this regard, the ABC Global Alliance was created and is actively fighting for, among others, better survival and quality of life, accurate information, access to multidisciplinary and high-quality care, early access to supportive and palliative measures, financial support, and the ability to maintain or return to work. The ABC Charter, which is a comprehensive needs assessment of the field of advanced breast cancer, clearly highlights that much work is still needed and that intense collaboration between all stakeholders involved is crucial to improve the length and quality of life of all patients and perhaps one day be able to reach a cure for advanced breast cancer.

References:

  1. Breastcancer.org, (2016) Breast cancer facts and Statistics Available at: https:www.breastcancer.orgfacts-statistics (1332022)
  2. Breast cancer (2019) Available at: https:www.researchgate.netpublication335984408_Breast_cancer Accessed at (13032022)
  3. Awareness and current knowledge of breast Cancer by Akram et al. Biol Res (2017) 50:33 Available at: https:biolres.biomedcentral.comtrackpdf10.1186s40659-017-0140-9.pdf Access at (13032022)
  4. Benefits and harms of mammography screening Available at: https:breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.comarticles10.1186s13058-015-0525-z accessed at (130302022)
  5. National cancer institution (2014) available at: https:www.cancer.govtypesbreastmammograms-fact-sheet Access at (13032022)
  6. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer by Seyed Hesam Bani Hashemi access on(03212022) available at: https:www.ncbi.nlm.nih.govpmcarticlesPMC4324293
  7. Lifestyle changes for prevention of breast cancer (2014) by Seyed Hesam Bani Hashemi
  8. Available at: https:www.researchgate.netpublication273466739_Lifestyle_changes_for_prevention_of_breast_cancer.[ Accessed:13 March 2022]
  9. Primary breast cancer (2015) by S. Zackrisson, F. Cardoso. Available at: https:www.annalsofoncology.orgarticleS0923-7534(19)47181-0fulltext [ Accessed:13 march, 2022]

#heathcare #medical #medicalcare #pharmaceuticals #healthcareprofessional #nurses #healthprofessionals

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