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Earnings management through real activities manipulation, Augusta Archdeaconry (2006) Due date: cot 1, 2013 The research paper “Earnings management through real actively manipulation” by Augusta Archdeaconry analyses evidence on real activities manipulation In corporate earnings management to meet operational targets. Archdeaconry presents “abnormal real activities” in operations management by examine cash flows from operation (COOP), production costs and discretionary expenses.

My paper will focus on how the evidence of real activities manipulation presented in the research paper is related to the concepts of opportunity and period costs. To Identify how accounting and operational decision making Is related to opportunity costs in earnings management, I oppose present period cost to future period costs in my paper. As accrual accounting is based on the revenue recognition principle manipulating real activities during the present year is often used to influence short- UN earnings targets to avoid annual losses without realizing the opportunity costs of a decrease In long-run firm value.

Managers engage in accrual manipulation by reason of attaching high values to abnormal accruals In their evaluation of opportunity costs. Short-term activities, I. E. Altering financial reports to meet annual analyst forecasts, earn higher recognition than long-term upcoming costs by misleading stakeholders or influence contractual outcomes. Graham et al. ‘s survey (2005) confirms in consistency with the research paper that financial executives have high willingness to pay meeting those earnings targets, even though there is high probability to reduce firm value In future periods by real activities manipulation.

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Monolinguals of opportunity costs for potential decreasing firm value by actions taken In current periods to Increase annual earnings can have a negative effect on cash flows in future periods. Besides the preceding macro-founded cost analysis of managerial accounting and operational decisions the opportunistic reduction of R expenditures to reduce ported expenses plays a major role in analyzing the gesticulation for real actively management on a micro-cost level. Been et al. 2002, 2003) finds that managers rank opportunity costs for stock repurchases avoiding PEPS dilution arising from employee stock option exercises and grants lower than reduce spending on R. The reduction of R expenditure is used as an increase in shorter earnings in present periods to meet certain benchmarks while putting low value on limited time discounts and excess inventory are evident short-term manipulation ethos that effect abnormal real activities to increase annual earnings on the micro-cost level.

The discussion of manipulation methods used to effect real activities earning management in relation to opportunity and period cost concludes that there is evidence for managerial decisions Judging upcoming future period costs by reducing discretionary expenditures or long-term investments lower than current period costs for increasing annual sales or building up excess inventory to meet annual earnings targets.

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