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Narrative Study

Angrosino (1994) conducted a narrative research on the bus with Vonnie Lee Explorations in life history and metaphor. The purpose of the study was to use life history as a method of narrative research among unempowered people. The author describes and analyzes the life history of a man with mental retardation.

There was a large amount of published material based on the life histories of people with mental retardation, but, literature of those materials were having gap of an insider’s perspective. Much of that literature is more focused on the experiences of caregivers, the assumption being that the person with retardation is unable to speak on his or her own behalf. It was a narrative study and one participant life history was discussed in this research. The researcher used life history interviews with observation of behavior in natural setting, and attempts to make sense of life outside the institution.

The author had not given any suggestions for further researches. This technique may be not appropriate for all persons with mental disability, but when it can be used, it helps to demonstrate the proposition that mental retardation is not a monolithic condition whose victims are distinguished by random group of standardized test scores. It is only one of many factors that figure into a person’s strategy for coping with the world. Perhaps in his specialness and individual quirkiness, Vonnie Lee is typical after all-not of ‘mentally retarded persons’ but of human beings who learn how to use elements of the common culture to serve their individual purposes.

Phenomenological Study

The Anderson (2002) conducted a study about Cognitive Representations of AIDS. The purpose of the study was to Cognitive representations of illness determine behavior. How persons living with AIDS image their disease might be key to understanding medication adherence and other health behaviors. There was a huge literature review on this topic but no studies reported AIDS patients’ cognitive representations or images of AIDS. Consequently, this study focused on how persons with AIDS cognitively represented and imaged their disease. A purposive sample of 41 men and 17 women with a diagnosis of AIDS participated in this phenomenological study. All interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Eight participants drew their image of AIDS.

Many participants saw a connection between caring for themselves and the length of their lives. Some participants focused on the final outcome of death, whereas others spoke of the emotional and social consequences of AIDS in their lives. From 175 significant statements, 11 themes emerged. Cognitive representations included imaging AIDS as death, bodily destruction, and just a disease. Coping focused on wiping AIDS out of the mind, hoping for the right drug, and caring for oneself inquiring about a patient’s image of AIDS might help nurses assess coping processes and enhance nurse-patient relationships. Further research combining images of AIDS and objective measures of medication adherence, risk behaviors, and quality of life is needed to determine if there is an association between specific illness representations and adherence, risk behaviors, and/or quality of life.

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Case study

Asmussen & Creswell (1995) conducted a case study about the incident occurred on the campus of a large public university in a Midwestern city. A gunman entered in the university. The study was consistent with an exploratory qualitative case study design. The study was bounded by time (eight months) and by a single case (the campus community). Consistent with case study design, researcher identified campus administrators and student newspaper reporters as multiple sources of information for initial interviews. The researcher gathered observational data, documents, and visual. The researchers were self-reported information and that researchers were unable to interview all students who had been directly affected by the incident so as to not intervene in student therapy or the investigation also poses a problem.

The findings of the study were issues such as leadership, communication, and authority emerged during the case analysis. Also, an environmental response developed, because the campus was transformed into a safer place for students and staff. The need for centralized planning, while allowing for autonomous operation of units in response to a crisis, called for organizational change that would require cooperation and coordination among units. The findings were helpful to campus personnel see the inter relatedness and the large number of units that may be involved in a single incident. The researcher suggested for future studies, such as the victim response, media reporting, the debriefing process, campus changes, and the evolution of a campus plan.

Grounded study

Morrow & Smith (1995) conducted a grounded theory study on Constructions of Survival and Coping by Women Who Have Survived Childhood Sexual Abuse. The researcher’s purpose was to understand the lived experiences of women who had been sexually abused as children and to generate a theoretical model for the ways in which they survived and coped with their abuse. Although the counseling literature is rich with descriptions of specific outcomes of childhood sexual abuse, this study is distinctive in its systematic examination of the survival and coping strategies from the perspectives of women who were sexually abused as children. The participants of study were 11 women who had been sexually abused as children. In-depth interviews, videotapes, focus group, documentary evidence, and follow-up participant checks and collaborative analysis were used.

The grounded theory model for surviving and coping with childhood sexual abuse, evolving from Strauss and Corbin’s (1990) framework and developed from the present investigation is following. Two types of causal conditions emerged from this research that was cultural norms and forms of sexual abuse. The phenomena of the research was threatening or dangerous feelings and helplessness, powerlessness, lack of control. The context of the research was sensation, frequency, intensity, duration, perpetrator characteristics. The intervening conditions of the study was cultural values, family attitudes, other abuses present, age of the victim, rewards that accompanied the abuse and outside resources. The strategy of the study was keeping from overwhelmed by threatening and dangerous feelings & managing helplessness, powerlessness and lack of control. The consequences of the strategies were survival, coping strategy, healing, empowerment and wholeness.

The results of this analysis were unique to the particular investigator, participants, and context of this study. The theoretical model for survival and coping takes place as the reader examines these results in the context of specific circumstances of interest. Given the prevalence of sexual abuse, adaptation to childhood trauma must be considered a part of the process of normal development for a large number of individuals. The present findings may facilitate a reevaluation of that adaptation and offer clients and their therapists a conceptual framework to facilitate healing. The researchers were not given suggestions for further researches.

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