Conduct Internet research about poverty in the United States and create a photo essay that depicts the economic struggles that many Americans are facing today. Photo essays consist of a collections of photographs or images that portray a particular message. The idea of this assignment is to be creative, so don’t let a new type of assignment hinder you. Your photo essay should have an organized theme, linking two photos in some way in the essay.Theme ideas include a certain area or region (urban or rural), lost jobs, a personal story, the recession, immigration, economic impact of globalization, low-paying jobs, slums, kids and poverty, hunger, elderly and poverty, single parents and poverty, health care and poverty, drugs, or other social issues that may be associated with poverty. You are not limited to these ideas; you may pick any theme that you think depicts the economic struggles of Americans.You will submit the following in one document:Two photos that support one common social theme.Each photo must come from a different webpage, article, or source. In other words, do not find an article or photo essay online and copy both photos from that one source. The photos may be your own photos, photos found online, or a combination of both.Provide a 100-word (minimum) description for each of the two photos that states what each of the photos represents.The descriptions should educate the reader about the social theme you are presenting.Provide a 150-word (minimum) summary of your photo theme and explain how social class as a social structure influences the opportunities or life choices for the individuals or individual in your photo essay.Conclude with a statement of what you learned from this photo essay assignment.Please make sure to cite the source of each photo and any other source materials used in this assignment.
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UNIT V STUDY GUIDE
Social Class and Global Inequality
Course Learning Outcomes for Unit V
Upon completion of this unit, students should be able to:
6. Explain how social structure shapes an individual’s life chances.
6.1 Recognize how social structure influences an individual’s opportunities.
6.2 Prepare a photo (portrait) essay that depicts social class as a social structure that affects the
opportunities (life chances) for the individual or individuals.
Course/Unit
Learning Outcomes
6.1
6.2
Learning Activity
Unit Lesson
Chapter 9, pp. 212–214 (Power and Authority section), pp. 224–227 (Political
Participation in the United States section)
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Video: Causes of Underdevelopment
Video: Causes of Measuring Economic Development
Unit V Project
Unit Lesson
Chapter 9, pp. 212–214 (Power and Authority section), pp. 224–227 (Political
Participation in the United States section)
Chapter 10
Chapter 11
Video: Causes of Underdevelopment
Video: Causes of Measuring Economic Development
Unit V Project
Reading Assignment
Chapter 9: Economy and Politics, pp. 212–214 (Power and Authority section), pp. 224–227
(Political Participation in the United States section)
Chapter 10: Social Class
Chapter 11: Global Inequality
Films for Humanities & Sciences (Producer). (2007). Causes of underdevelopment (Segment 3 of 7) [Video
file]. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34994&loid=37207
Click here for the video transcript.
Films for Humanities & Sciences (Producer). (2007). Measuring economic development (Segment 1 of 7)
[Video file]. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34994&loid=37205
Click here for the video transcript.
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology
1
Unit Lesson
UNIT x STUDY GUIDE
Title
Defining Stratification and Social Class in Society
In Unit III, we talked about statuses and groups. We learned that the groups you belong to and statuses you
hold influence your opportunities in life. We will continue studying this concept. We will study how society is
stratified with different social groups, which have access to different opportunities, which in turn determines a
person’s life chances. When discussing stratification, it is useful to think of the image of a cake with multiple
layers. Each layer of stratification contains similar properties within it and differing properties from the other
layers. Society is also comprised of layers, which we call groups or classes. Each class has similar properties
within the class but differs considerably from other classes. Within each class, people have certain life
chances and everyday practical consequences, including housing size, alcohol consumption, and mate
selection. These are all different from one class to another. In the United States, stratification of social class
tends to be defined by income levels: underclass, working class, middle class, upper-middle class, and upper
class. It is interesting to note that when people are asked their social class, they tend to identify themselves
as middle class. Why do you think this is? Is there a stigma to seeming too poor or too rich in our society?
While social class significantly influences life opportunities, it is important to mention that there is the
possibility to shift within a class and change classes. Moving horizontally within a social class is where you
obtain a new status with the same rank. Moving up or down in social class is vertical mobility. Sociologists
also categorize the change in class in families. Intergenerational social mobility is when a child moves to a
different social class than their parents. Intra-generational is when a family changes social positions during
the same generation (Witt, 2018).
Besides completing the reading this week, another great place to research the middle class, poverty issues,
and poverty statistics is in the Opposing Viewpoints in Context database in the CSU Online Library. Here you
can find different opinions and views on poverty and economic issues within the United States. The database
contains audio, video, statistics, articles, and primary sources. Please review the graph below, which shows
the poverty rates by age from 1966–2014.
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology
2
What do you think? Were you surprised to see that the largest number of poorUNIT
are the
young and
old?
x STUDY
GUIDE
Title
Functionalist, Interactionist, and Conflict View of Social Class
So what is the reason for stratification in society? In the unit reading for Chapter 10, the three perspectives
(interactionist, functionalist, and conflict) were applied to stratification. First, the interactionist view focuses on
relationships as the reason for stratification in different social classes. The interactionist view is that social
mobility is linked to networking, getting degrees, and interacting with others in your field or in your path to
success. Second, the functionalist view believes that stratification (division of labor) occurs in order to make
society run smoothly. Labor is divided into high- or low-skilled jobs that create different status and wealth
levels or stratification. Finally, conflict theory that was first introduced by Karl Marx discusses that the conflict
over power and resources causes stratification (Witt, 2018).
Karl Marx argued that the central reason for stratification was that there were two classes, those who own the
means of production (the bourgeoisie) and those who own the labor (the proletariat). Accordingly, those with
the means and power will control those without the means and power (Witt, 2018). Think about it this way.
Say you work for a huge conglomerate called ABC Company, and you wish to take a vacation. Are you the
one who decides when you take your vacation, or do you need your boss’ input on how many days you can
take off, and when it is convenient to take those days off? Most workers must make their choices within the
structure of their job. If you own ABC Company, you do not need anyone’s permission to take a vacation.
Another key element in Marxist theory is the fact that those of means have power and therefore have a vested
interest in keeping things the way they are, i.e., maintaining the status quo.
Max Weber and Stratification
Max Weber also wrote prolifically about stratification in society. According to Weber, it was determined not
simply by who owns the means, but also by the values of the group (Witt, 2018). We act on both our
economic interests and on our values. For Weber, there are three types of inequalities: market, status, and
power. Weber believed there are three market situations that result in economic inequality. These three
include the labor market, the money market, and the commodity market. The labor market involves the
inequality between employers and employees. The money market deals with the inequality that occurs in the
relationship between creditors and debtors in society. The commodity market covers inequalities that occur in
economic relationships like property owner and tenant. Another area for inequality is a status group. Weber
noted that status inequality (or prestige) bases itself on the prevailing values and ideals of society (Witt,
2018).
For example, actors have more prestige than police officers do, and singers have more prestige than office
clerks do. Being part of a status group means having some sense of shared identity with one another. This
identity comes with a desire to maintain and protect one’s position. How? Each status group selectively
interacts within the group by socializing with their own group, inviting group members to their homes, sending
their children to the same schools, and joining the same organizations. A final type of inequality is one of
power. Weber argued that parties organize for the pursuit of power. These groups are action-oriented, can be
political or not, and can be based on economics (class) or on the ways people live (status) (Witt, 2018).
Besides stratification in the United States, we also learned about global stratification in this unit reading on
Chapter 11. There is a global divide of haves and have-nots within and between nations. Modernization,
globalization, and the legacy of colonialism are given as the main reasons for this stratification.
Please watch the below videos that do a great job providing examples and context for our textbook reading in
this unit on global inequality around the world.
The first video clip is from the video Economic Development: A Global Challenge. It is Segment 1 called
Measuring Economic Development. It discusses global wealth and health measurement and the income
stratification around the globe. Click here for the video transcript.
Films for Humanities & Sciences (Producer). (2007). Measuring economic development (Segment 1 of 7)
[Video file]. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34994&loid=37205
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology
3
The second video clip is also from the video Economic Development: A GlobalUNIT
Challenge.
TheGUIDE
video is
x STUDY
Segment 3 called Causes of Underdevelopment. It discusses what causes global
Titleinequality. Click here for the
video transcript.
Films for Humanities & Sciences (Producer). (2007). Causes of underdevelopment (Segment 3 of 7) [Video
file]. Retrieved from
https://libraryresources.columbiasouthern.edu/login?auth=CAS&url=http://fod.infobase.com/PortalPla
ylists.aspx?wID=273866&xtid=34994&loid=37207
Reference
Witt, J. (2018). SOC 2018 (5th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill Education.
Learning Activities (Nongraded)
Nongraded Learning Activities are provided to aid students in their course of study. You do not have to submit
them. If you have questions, contact your instructor for further guidance and information.
1. SocThink
Your textbook provides several opportunities for you to explore relevant topics, from personal selfexploration to challenging questions concerning topics being studied in this unit. Taking the time to read and
respond to these opportunities will help you learn and apply the information being studied. These
opportunities can be found on the following pages:

Chapter 9:
o p. 214

Chapter 10:
o p. 239
o p. 246
o p. 253
o p. 254

Chapter 11:
o p. 262
o p. 266
o p. 271
o p. 274
o p. 279
o p. 280
2. Check Your Learning
Quizzes are a way to self-test and see if you understand what you are studying. The textbook provides a brief
Pop Quiz for each chapter. Take advantage of this learning tool to enrich your learning experience! The
answers are provided, so you can check and see how well you did. For this unit, the quizzes are available on
the following pages:


Chapter 10: Pop Quiz, p. 257
Chapter 11: Pop Quiz, p. 282
SOC 1010, Introduction to Sociology
4

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