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Depression is a widespread and dangerous psychiatric condition, which has a detrimental effect on your feelings, thinking, and behavior. Depression is one of the most misunderstood and mistreated mental disorders in the world. It’s also treatable. In the public, depression is particularly prevalent . One in four individuals had a lifetime of mental disorders including depression, anxiety, and drug abuse. In contrast to physical disease, depression has a higher morbidity and mortality rate. It has an effect on one’s thoughts, feelings, emotions, attitudes, relationships, and working, as well as a negative impact on one’s social status, schooling, and productivity .

Depression is the fourth leading cause of disease burden, but it will overtake heart disease as the second leading cause of injury and death by 2020. Only a small percentage of individuals around the world earned mental health care . Depression occurs if you have five or more of these signs for at least 2 weeks, according to the DSM-5 manual doctors for diagnosing your psychiatric illnesses.

You’re depressed for the majority of the day, especially in the morning.

Nearly every day, you feel exhausted or drained of energy.

Almost every day, you feel useless or guilty.

You have a bleak attitude.

You have trouble concentrating, recalling facts, and making choices.

Almost every day, you can’t relax or sleep too long.

You have no enthusiasm or enjoyment in a variety of things.

You worry about death or suicide a lot (not just a fear of death).

You’re sluggish.

You’ve gained or lose weight.

You’re irritable and impatient.

Loss of enjoyment of life

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Eat too much or don’t eat at all if you’re starving

Have aches, pains, headaches

Depression is one of the increasing health issues for women because women in developed countries are especially afraid of depression. In women, depression is double as in men . Depression prevalence among Pakistani women is between 29% and66%, while for men it was between 10% and 33%. Depression is the most important cause of women’s disabilities. In women, depression is the primary cause of disease-related impairment . Marital status, lack of social care, marital discontent, educational levels, and family type are all determinants of depression in Pakistani women . Women’s depression is linked to their secrecy about their mental, social, and physical needs. Female predominance showed depression in treated studies. The sex ratio isn’t due to women’s higher levels of help-seeking behavior; it holds in population prevalence surveys as well. Differential recognition and course of suffering may be part of the cause, as shown by male predominance in drinking and suicide, as well as a potential recent rise in depression in young men. Biological processes that operate on the brain through hormonal effects are possible, but difficult to evaluate. According to epidemiological research, the majority of the excess exists in married women between the ages of 25 and 45 who have infants. This clearly indicates a social correlation and emphasizes young mothers’ vulnerability (Jacquot & Knack, 2009).

” According to Mirza, 2004, relationship and adjustment difficulties with husband and in-laws, number of children and financial difficulties were found to be associated with depression . Moreover, death of a loved one and increasing age of married women are also associated with depression whereas, social, and family support are “considered as buffering agents or protective factors against depression” The identification of all possible determinants can aid in the development of preventive strategies to reduce the prevalence of depression in women . Because of the country’s scarce health services, mental health is often overlooked, increasing the number of people suffering from depression. This research will look at the prevalence of depression and the factors that contribute to it

Here are the statistics about depression in women: In the U.S., about 15 million people have depression per year. Much of them are ladies. Unfortunately, almost two-thirds of those who need assistance do not get it. Women’s depression is very general. Symptoms of depression of women include, Mood swings, irritability, lack of sleep, and grandiose thoughts are all symptoms of an abnormally high mood . Significantly more talking, thoughts the race, an increase in physical activity, including sexual activity, is a good thing. Depression is regularly ranked as the world’s second most incapacitating psychiatric disease (Jacquot & Knack, 2009), because, like the common cold with emotional disorders (Whiffen, 2002), it has a significant economic effect. Women have a higher incidence of major depression in community-based epidemiological and psychiatric trials using self-reporting and informant reports (Jacquot & Knack, 2009)

Bernard (1982) observed that married men were less likely than never married men to exhibit severe signs of psychiatric illness and mental health impairments. Similarly, married women did better than single women. Overall, marriage seemed to be favorable to both women and men. Married women did not do as well as men, according to her observations . Women who were married were more likely to have felt on the verge of a nervous breakdown. More prone to psychological and physical anxiety (nervousness and insomnia, headaches, and heart palpitations); and shown more phobic responses, loneliness, and passivity than married men. Finally, a study of the well-being of never-married men and women revealed that never-married men were more likely to have physical impairments than never-married women (Jacquot & Knack, 2009). They became more depressed and passive, had more paranoia and antisocial behavior, and were more likely to have been on the verge of a nervous breakdown and to have experienced psychiatric anxiety. Marriage appears to be beneficial to both women and men, but it appears to be more beneficial to men .

There is evidence to think that, in addition to stress susceptibility and insecurity, inequalities in social care may account for the elevated rates of depression and illness often seen in single females. For instance, the primary source of assistance to parents is married or a common law partnership (Jacquot & Knack, 2009). The stresses of becoming a single parent are often likely to restrict social interactions with peers and membership in volunteer social organizations. This social isolation will lead to depressed feelings . There is also reason to think, if one parent is present and the mother relationship is secure enough with her parents to allow positive interactions with family members, it will increase the time that she has spent with relatives (instrumental and emotional). Given that there is not the help generally provided by the husband (married couple or common-law partner), the benefit of a single mother would be greater for families and friends. In other words, the absence of a companion will prompt assistance from unknown sources. This increased interaction with family and friends may result in lower depression and anxiety levels .

For single women, the effect of social support on psychological well-being can vary from married women. For example, the lack of a stable social network may cause single mothers more psychological pain than married mothers, who at least have the social and financial support of a husband. This theory is yet to be investigated further in the literature. Part of the disparity in depression between single and married women may be attributed to chronic stress and recent life events. There has never been a report that looked at childhood adversities, chronic stress, and life experiences all at once. We use a diagnostic tool that approximates a major depressive episode diagnosis .

The key finding of the data review is that there is a substantial gap in a depression between married and single women. In plain words, married women’s depression is lower than single women’s depression. Married couples have greater life satisfaction than single women (Jacquot & Knack, 2009). The relationship between marital status and depression was investigated by Ronald C. Kessler and Marilyn Essex (1982). He discovered that married people have lower rates of depression than unmarried people because they are physically less affected by negative interactions for a variety of causes. Ito Y., Sagara J., and Ikeda M. (2004) studied the mental health of married people about marriage happiness, work-life, and household income. Those who were in their child-rearing years had the greatest connection. For women who worked full-time, career happiness was almost as critical as marital partnership satisfaction. Marital happiness is critical for health and well-being, according to Walker R., Isherwood L., Burton C., Kitwe-Magambo K., and Luszcz M. (2013), though the determinants of satisfaction among older couples remain uncertain. Most of the research on marriage has concentrated on the position of the partner, rather than on overall satisfaction with social relationships.

References

Cairney, J., Boyle, M., Offord, D. R., & Racine, Y. (2003). Stress, social support and depression in single and married mothers. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol.

O’Brien, J. (2009). Encyclopedia of gender and society. Sage Publications.

Shah, I., & Sultan, R. (2012). A Gender based comparison of depression between married and unmarried young adults . International Research Journal of Arts and Humanities (IRJAH).

Shehzad, S., Farooq, S., Parpio, Y., Karmaliani, R., Asad, N., Syed, I. A., & Pasha, O. (2016). Factors affecting depression among married women living in urban squatter settlements of Karachi, Pakistan . Open Journal of Epidemiology.

Jacquot, C., & Knack, J. M. (2009). Depression. In J. O’Brien. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Gender and Society (pp.194-196). Sage Publications, USA.

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