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Today, childhood obesity has grown into a very worrying situation. Children who are obese in childhood have a much higher probability of developing obesity than normal children after they are grown up, and have a higher probability of developing diseases than normal children. It not only does physical harm to children, but also affects their psychology So what is childhood obesity? what is the standard for judging whether a child is obese?In the book “Obesity, Childhood And Adolescence” written by Michelle L. Frisco, the effective way to calculate the weight of a child is BMI. BMI Calculating body mass index (BMI) from children’s weight and height is the most common way that people determine whether children are overweight or obese. BMI = weight (kg) / [height (m)] . BMI is generally considered a reliable measure of body fatness among children.In another book written by Tish Davidson, “Childhood Obesity,” it is mentioned that when BMI less than 5%, it is underweight; 5% to less than 85% is a healthy weight; 85% to less than 95% is Overweight; 95% or more is called obese. With the improvement of living standards, not only adults are getting fat, but children have also joined the ranks of obesity. “Childhood Obesity” written by TIsh Davidson,.AM and L.Lee Culvert , Obesity is a complex disease.
In general, it is caused by consuming more calories than the body uses. We call this difference the energy gap. “Most overweight children are simply too heavy because they consume more calories than they burn during exercise, which creates an energy gap. Eating certain types of food may produce more calories than is needed, such as ,sugary beverages and some snack foods. Sugary drinks are a cause of obesity and are generally thought to be limited to sodas, but fruit juices and other sugar-sweetened beverages can also contribute to obesity. Some snack foods, including French fries, baked goods and candies are high in calories, and they are often made into children’s favorite flavor, so that children ignore the amount in the process of eating, resulting in excessive calorie intake. Lack of exercise is also a key factor in childhood obesity. With the popularity of electronic products, smart phones, iPad, video games ,computers and other electronic products have entered almost every family. Many children are addicted to these electronic products, and playing electronic products has completely replaced outdoor activity. The excess calories that children consume cannot be used up, and over time, a lot of fat is stored in their bodies. These two factors are the main causes of childhood obesity. Childhood obesity not only does harm to the body, but also has a great negative impact on their psychology. “Obesity, Childhood And Adolescence” written by Michelle L. Frisco state that obese children are at higher risk of serious health problems. They are more likely to become obese adults than children of normal weight. They may also suffer from serious illnesses that reduce quality of life and life expectancy, including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, coronary heart disease, asthma, obstructive sleep apnea and liver disease. While the physical harm caused by obesity to children, the psychological impact also afflicts them. In “Handbook of Nutrition and Food” mentioned that the incidence of mental illness is also associated with childhood obesity.
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Children aged five and six described obese children as “lazy”, “ugly” and “stupid”. Obese children are more likely than their normal-weight peers to be bullied, teased by other children, and given malicious nicknames that often cause significant psychological harm.After puberty, as children become more concerned with their own and peers’ perceptions, bullying can make things worse, leading to more social problems and lower self-esteem. There is evidence that psychiatric morbidity increases in obese adults, most commonly depression, and is associated with weight bias, particularly due to bullying at school and psychiatric morbidity from childhood. Many people think that treating overweight or obese children seems easy, simply advising them to eat fewer meals, eat more vegetables, eat less fat and exercise more. however, treating childhood obesity is a time-consuming, frustrating, and expensive process. Choosing the most effective treatment for childhood obesity is complex and difficult. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther mentioned in his article “Treatment of Obesity in Children and Adolescents” that lifestyle changes in obesity children and their families are essential to a healthy life and are a prerequisite for all treatment for overweight and obesity. First, adjust the diet to avoid excess calories based on a balanced diet. Reduce high-energy and high-glycemic index foods in your diet. These include potatoes, pastries, sugar, butter, Fried foods, and puffed foods. Diet should be diversified, encourage children to eat more vegetables. Second, increase children’s activities and develop exercise habits. Physical activity can burn off excess calories and promote growth and development. The physical activity of children and adolescents should be gradually increased on the basis of the current level of activity, instead of aiming too high from the very beginning, children should be gradually cultivated to take part in sports and encouraged to persevere. The sports form is flexible and various, may according to own strip and the interest be fond of to choose running, swimming, play basketball, plays soccer and so on . Although we have made a lot of change to the lifestyle of obese children in the living environment and supported healthy practices, a large number of obese children still face obesity and its complications.
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